You are here

Analysis of the prevalence of osteoarticular pathologies in horses based on the results of radiography

This article provides an overview of the literatureand recent scientific research on the spread of bone andjoint pathology among horses. Reasoned relevance andprospects of research on this issue.The article also presents the results of own research aimed at analyzing the distribution of bone andjoint diseases in horses on the territory of equestriansports clubs of Kharkiv region, Poltava region andKyiv region with the aim of finding out the frequencyof occurrence of this group of pathologies.To achievethe goal, radiography of 40 heads of horses aged 8-21years of riding breeds, which had signs of lamenessof the resisting limb, was carried out. Based on theresults of the research, differential diagnosis of boneand joint diseases was carried out. Differential diagnosis of arthrosis was presented taking into account thepathological process and its localization. According tothe obtained data, arthrosis accounted for 55% of thetotal number of studied animals, osteoporosis – 25%,periostitis – 7.5%, cystic formations and bone cracks –7.5%. Bone and joint pathology was not detected in theremaining 5%. Arthritic phenomena were localized inthe joints of the distal part of the limbs, namely: hoof,coronal, putative, carpal and hock. A case was registered when the degenerative process was concentratednot only in one joint, but also moved to the lower one.Among 55% of arthrosis, there were cases of osteoarthrosis, exfoliative osteochondritis, presence of ossification within the joint. The article also comparesown results with data obtained by foreign researchersregarding the distribution of bone and joint pathologiesin horses.In addition, the article substantiates the feasibilityof analyzing the spread of bone and joint diseases inhorses and demonstrates the effectiveness of X-ray diagnostics of these pathologies.

Key words: arthrosis, periostitis, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, osteoarthritis of the hock joint, osteochondritis dissecans, ossification.

  1. Egenvall, A., Penell, J.C., Bonnett, B.N., Olson, P.,Pringle, J. (2005). Morbidity of Swedish horses insured for veterinary care between 1997 and 2000:variations with age, sex, breed and location. Veterinary Record. 157, 15, pp. 436–443. DOI:10.1136/vr.157.15.436.
  2. Reed, S.R., Jackson, B.F., Mcllwraith, C.W.,Wright, I.M., Pilsworth, R., Knapp, S., Wood, J.L.N.,Prise, J.S., Verheyen, K.L.P. (2011). Descriptive epidemiology of joint injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses in training. Equine Vet J. DOI:10.1111/j.2024-3306.2010.00352.x.
  3. Paris, A., Beccati, F., Pepe, M. (2021). Type,prevalence, and risk factors for the development of orthopedic injuries in endurance horses during trainingand competition. Journal of the American VeterinaryMedical Association, 258 (10). DOI:10.2460/javma.258.10.1109.
  4. Merradale-Punter, M.S., Wiethoelter, A.K., ElHage, C.M., Hitchens, P.L. (2022). Prevalence and Factors Associated with Working Equid Lameness in Lowand Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Animals. 12, 3100. DOI:10.3390/ani12223100.
  5. Metzger, J., Distl, O. (2020). Genetics of EquineOrthopedic Disease. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice. 36(2), pp. 289–301. DOI:10.1016/j.cveq.2020.03.008.
  6. Sousa, N.R., Luna, S.P.L., Pizzigatti, D., Martins, M.T.A., Possebon, F.S., Aguiar, A.C.S. (2017).Relation between type and local of orthopedic injurieswith physical activity in horses. Clinic and Surgery.47 (2). DOI:10.1590/0103-8478cr20151218.
  7. Parkin, T., Boden, L. (2013). Epidemiology oforthopedic diseases in athletic horses, Equine SportsMedicine and Surgery, red. K. W. Hinchcliff, A. Kaneps,R. J. Geor, Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp. 61–68.
  8. Battista, C.D., Conte, M., Pepe, M., Petrizzi, L.,Beccati, F. (2019). Epidemiology and risk factorsfor elimination from Federation Equestre Internationale endurance rides between 2004-2015 in Italy.Prew Vet Med. 1:170, 104737. DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.104737.
  9. Hollenbach, E., Robert, M.P., Roux, C.I., Smit, Y.(2022). Prevalence of radiographic changes in forelimbdigits and metacarpophalangeal joints of South African endurance racehorses. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc., 93 (2).DOI:10.36303/jsava. 490.
  10. Butler, J.A. (2000). Clinical radiology of thehorse. Ed 2. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific. pp. 197–200.
  11. McIlwraith, C.W., Kawcak, C.E., Frisbie, D.D.,Little, C.B., Clegg, P.D., Peffers, M.J., Karsdal, M.A.,Ekman, S., Laverty, S., Slayden, R.A., Sandell, L.J.,Lohmander, L.S., Kraus, V.B. (2017). Biomarkers forequine joint injury and osteoarthritis. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 36 (3), pp. 823–831. DOI:10.1002/jor.23738.
  12. Eksell, P., Axelsson, M., Brostorm, H., Roneus, B., Haggstrom, J., Carlsten, J. (1998). Prevalenceand risk factors of bone spavin in Icelandic horses inSweden: a radiographic field study. Acta Vet Scand. 39(3), pp. 339–348. DOI:10. 1186/BF03547782.
  13. Courouce, A., Bouchilloux, M., Geffroy, O.(2006). Abnormal radiographic findings in 865 FrenchStandardbred trotters and their relationship to racingperformance. Equine Veterinary Journal, 36 (36), pp.417–422. DOI:10.1111/ j.2042-3306.tb05579.x.
  14. Contino, E.K., Park, R.D., McIlwraith, C.W.(2011). Prevalence of radiographic changes in yearling and 2-year-old Quarter Horses intended for cutting. Equine Veterinary Journal, 44 (2), pp. 185–195.DOI:10.1111/j.2042-3306.2011. 00432.x.
  15. Baccarin, R.Y.A., Seidel, S.R.T., Michelacci, Y.M.,Tokawa, P.K.A., Oliveira, T.M. (2022). Osteoarthritis: a common disease that should be avoided in theathletic horse’s life. Anim Front. 12 (3), pp. 25–36.DOI:10.1093/af/vfac026.
  16. Ramos, S., Pinto, A., Cardoso, M., Alexandre, N.,Bettencourt, E., Monteiro, S., Gama, L.T. (2020). Prevalence of Radiographic Sings of Osreoarthritis in Lusitano Purebred. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science,Vol. 94, nov. 103196. DOI:10.1016/j.jevs.2020.103196
  17. McIlwraith, C.W., Frisbie, D.D., Kawcak, C.E. (2012). The horse as a model of naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Bone Joint Res. 1 (11), pp. 297–309. DOI:10.1302/2046-3758.111.2000118.
  18. Barrett, M.F., Selberg, K.T., Johnson, S.A.,Hersman, J., Frisbie, D.D. (2018). High field magneticresonance imaging contributes to diagnosis of equinedistal tarsus and proximal metatarsus lesions: 103 horses.Veterinary radiology & ultrasound, 59(5), pp. 574–581.DOI:10.1111/vru.12659.
  19. Smith, R.K.W., Dyson, S.J., Schramme, M.C.,Head, M.J., Rayne, R.J., Platt, D., Walmsley, J.(2005). Osteoarthritis of the talocalcaneal jointin 18 horses. Equine Vet J., 37 (2), pp. 166–171.DOI:10.2746/0425164054223813.
  20. Boado, A., Lopez-Sanroman, F.J. (2016).Prevalence and characteristics of osteochondrosis in309 Spanish Purebred horses. The Veterinary Journal,Vol. 207, pp. 112–117. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.09.024.
  21. James, O.A., Payne, R.J., Bathe, A.P., Greet, T.R.C.,Wylie, C.E. (2014). Tarsocrural Arthroscopy for Osteochondrosis Dissecans: Clinical Features of a ReferralHospital Population and Prevalence of Abnormalitieswithin the Plantar Pouch. Equine Veterinary Journal, 46(47), 5 p. DOI:10.1111/evj.12323_8.
  22. Mendoza, L., Lejeune, J.-P., Caudron, I.,Detilleux, J., Sandersen, C., Deliege, B., Serteyn, D.(2016). Impact of feeding and housing on the development of osteochondrosis in foals — A longitudinal study. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Vol. 127,pp. 10–14. DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.03.003.
  23. Razi, A.M., Moghimi, F. (2021). Osteochondrosis in horses: A review of etiology, pathogenesis,and therapeutic interventions. Veterinary and AnimalScience, 13, 100197. DOI:10.1016/j.vas.2021.100197.
  24. Ley, C.J., Ekman, S., Hansson, K., Bjornsdottir, S., Boyde, A. (2014). Osteochondral lesions indistal tarsal joints of Icelandic horses reveal strong associations between hyaline and calcified cartilage abnormalities. European Cells and Materials. Vol. 27, pp.213–236. DOI:10.22203/eCM.v027a16.
  25. Weeren, P.R., Olstad, K. (2015). Pathogenesisof osteochondrosis dissecans: How does this translate tomanagement of the clinical case? Equine Veterinary Education. 28 (3), pp. 155–166. DOI:10.1111/eve.12435.
  26. Branch, M.V., Murray, R.S., Dyson, S.J.,Goodship, A.E. (2007). Alteration of distal tarsal subchondral bone thickness pattern in horseswith tarsal pain. Equine Vet J., 39 (2), pp. 101–105.DOI:10.2746/042516407x166756.
  27. Cruz, A.M., Hurting, M.B. (2008). Multiple pathways to osteoarthritis and articular fractures:is subchondral bone the culprit? Vet Clin North AmEquine Pract. 24 (1), pp. 101–116. DOI:10.1016/j.cveg.2007.12.001.
  28. Ramos, S., Pinto, A., Crespo, J., Marques, J.P.,Bettencourt, E., Gama, L.T., Monteiro, S. (2022).Osteochondrosis (Osteochondrosis Dissecans) in Lusitano Horses: Prevalence and Characteristics. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, Vol. 117, 104063.DOI:10.1016/j.jevs.2022.104063.
  29. Laverty, S., Girard, C. (2013). Pathogenesis ofepiphyseal osteochondrosis. The Veterinary Journal,197 (1), pp. 3–12. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl. 2013.03.-35.
  30. Hedenstrom, U.O., Wattle, O.S. (2014). Significance of ossificated ungular cartilages regarding theperformance of cold-blooded trotters. Acta Vet Scand.56 (1), 74 p. DOI:10.1186/s13028-014-0074-y.
  31. Jones, L.E., Dyson, S.J. (2015). Radiographic characterization of ossification of the ungular cartilages in horses: 271 cases (2005–2012). Journal of theAmerican Veterinary Medical Association. 247 (7).DOI:10.2460/javma.247.7.801.
  32. Skeelly, E., Dyson, S. (2014). Mineralisationor Ossification of the Interosseous Ligament of theCentrodistal Joint of the Horse: Is There an Association with Osteoarthritis?. Equine Veterinary Journal, 46(47), 6 p. DOI:10.1111/evj. 12323_11.
PDF icon aharkova_1_2023.pdf1.36 MB