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Аnalysis of primary diarrhea causes among young pigs
Analysis of the primary causes of diarrhea in piglets in pig industry is an extremely important step in terms of building the right strategy to eliminate and prevent the emergence of further adverse event among young pigs. In our view, the factors that cause the problem in question should, be divided into 3 categories:
– development of piglets due to diarrhea physiological characteristics of newborn piglets;
– the development of diarrhea caused by disturbances in pig production;
– diarrhea, in which the development of leading role are infectious factors.
It should be remembered that only during the first three weeks of newborn piglets digestive system is able to break down dairy products, and only in three weeks pig body starts fully digest animal feed. Gastric juice of little newborn piglets contains hydrochloric acid, which reduces its protective properties in the case of minor errors in feeding leads to disease of the digestive system. For splitting roughage body should develop mechanisms for enzymes. This is a complex process, often accompanied by the development of diarrhea in young piglets because of the unwillingness of the digestive system to digest roughage, takes time and the right approach. That is why the practice of using "training enzymes", which aims are to prepare the body of the animal to digest roughage. It was during this period of time, some veterinary experts trying to process diarrhea under control by antibiotics or other antimicrobial drugs, which is unacceptable. Farmakoprophylaxis and therapy without clarify the true cause of diarrhea INFRINGE only more harm after this intervention aggravated sometimes diarrhea.
To facilitate the adaptation mechanism of newborn piglets to digest roughage feed prestarter in its composition should contain digestive enzymes and substances that regulate the pH contents of stomach.
Digestive enzymes (endoxynalaza, betaglukonaza, peptydaza, amilaza, fitaza, lipaza) improve digestibility and assimilation of nutrients contained in the feed. When using digestive enzymes in daily feed intake significantly increases transport is accelerated intestinal contents. For the regulation of intestinal environment should be used unprotected and protected (coated) organic acids that change the acidity. Neutral or alkaline environment in the intestines of newborn piglets is ideal for the development of pathogenic bacteria. Through organic acids, coated, set in the small intestine acidic environment that is susceptible to pathogens.
The question of weaning piglets, is another important factor that cause the problem of acute digestive disorders of young pigs. Pigs are observed compensatory growth. Too little piglets stunting in growth and development, they rarely develop prolonged diarrhea. These animals have an increased susceptibility to colibacillosis.
When Acute problem of weaning is diarrhea in weaned piglets. The piglets under sow suck milk every hour, that young and often eats small portions (30–40 ml milk). The process of weaning accompanied by significant stress for the piglets. Our experience shows that passes about 2 days before pigs begin to eat normally roughage. In order to achieve the previous level of digestible energy 2 weeks are needed. The cause of diarrhea from 3rd to 5th day after weaning is low consumption, if not rejection of feed intake. The leading role in the development of diarrhea owned in small intestine villi, which absorb nutrients and enzymes form. Villi are constantly working, and this is possible only if the flow of roughage is constant. If pigs consume little or refuse from feed, villi stop working. Environment intestine filled with enterobacteria, accompanied by the development of diarrhea.
Activating enzyme responsible for splitting fiber and starch is slower than increasing the number of feed intake. Incompletely digested food enters the intestine, which causes the proliferation of enterobacteria, which are arriving in the large intestine, causing diarrhea development.
What shall I do? Even the smallest pigs absorb liquid feed. Soaking feed before and after weaning promotes water for better eating and reduces the risk of diarrhea. Liquid feeds are a way of soaking dry feed in 2/3 of water. Liquid feed given
2–3 times a day for 10 days before weaning and for 5 days after weaning in long feeders that was simultaneous access to all animals. Piglets have it for 15–30 minutes. In addition, pigs must have permanent access to dry food. The main drawback is additional labor costs.
To reduce the risk of diarrhea in weaned piglets in first two weeks after weaning piglets should reduce the intake of food.
Extremely important is the ability to differentiate and exclude eating disorders in young pigs, the leading role belongs to infectious and invasive agents. Our experience shows that the primary diarrhea mainly registered among lactating pigs in first days of life. By infectious factors that contribute to the problem in question of pig should include enteropathogenic strains of E. coli, Clostridium, mouth and coronavirus, from invasive – coccidia. It is in our studies, we want to focus on the features of the differential diagnosis of these diseases.
Piglets infected with coccidia have increased susceptibility to the manifestation colibacteriosis and dysentery. The manifestation of these diseases occurs at an earlier age and the clinical course is always difficult. Coccidia damage the intestinal villi, much consequently the process of digestion and absorption is violated, in result is diarrhea. Mostly colibacteriosis in pigs occurs in calves that received from pigs because their milk is insufficient for antibodies against E. coli. In most cases, clinical symptoms appear in 7–10 days after weaning piglets and are accompanied by watery yellow feaces. Pigs infected with delayed growth and development are fed longer.
For anaerobic enterotoxemia feaces are mixed with blood and gas vesicles. Mostly affected pigs during first days of life.
According to transmissible gastroenteritis mortality can reach 80 %. And the wall of the small intestine refined by villous atrophy.
Prevent manifestations flash colibacteriosis and anaerobic enterotoxemia of newborn piglets provided by vaccination of sows during the second half of gestation. For the first time in 3 weeks, repeatedly – 2 weeks before expected farrowing. Treatment of piglets at birth baykoks (or its equivalent) prevents manifestation of clinical coccidiosis, namely the appearance of diarrhea at 5–7 days after birth.
Key words: primary diarrhea, young pig, pig tech, factors, differential diagnosis, systems analysis.
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