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Application of infra-red thermometry with brachial plexus block bupivacaine 0.2 % for dogs
The paper deals with the results of investigation efficiency infra-red thermometry with the blockade of the shoulder intertwining of 0.2 % bupivacaine in dogs.
Local anesthesia of thoracic limbs in dogs is an effective, economical and safe method of pain relief that leads to the interruption of pathological impulses in the central nervous system at an early level of nerve system. An important aspect of local anesthesia is sympathetic blockade and reduction of surgery stress, improve the trophic tissue by the reflex spasmolisis of blood vessels and improve blood flow and tissue perfusion. Literature sources indicate a growing interest in the use of infra-red skin thermometry that is used to determine the physiological and pathological changes in organs and temperature dynamics of local body area, especially local anesthesia.
One aspect is a local anesthetic blockade of the sympathetic nerve fibers, which leads to vasodilatation and increase local skin temperature.
The purpose of research is to determine the parameters blockade of sympathetic innervations by brachial plexus 0.2 % bupivacaine solution in dogs using infra-red thermometry (Medisana TM-65E) in the area of the skin of the forearm. Comparison of the dynamics of skin temperature on anesthetized and intact limbs.
The material for the study were 10 dogs. Animals conducted a blockade of brachial plexus using nerve stimulation Stimuplex NHS12 and isolated needles Stimuplex A 21G×4 "(0.80×100 mm). The blockade was performed without sedation performance in the area of the left limb. After the blockade skin thermometry was performed. Parameters of skin temperature registered in preparatory period, and after injection 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270, 300, 330, 360, 390, 420, 480, 540, 600, 660, 720, 1440 min after blockade. Skin temperature measured in the area of the forearm infrared thermometer Medisana TM-65E at a distance of 0.5 cm from the surface of the skin. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using Microsoft Excel, the significance of temperature changes estimated Student's test, with significance level differences taken p≤0.05.
After the left thoracic limb brachial plexus block by 0.2 % bupivacaine solution in the first hour the animals were not observed statistically significant increase in skin temperature changes, but noted a tendency to increase. Outgoing its value amounted to 30.64±0.73 degree, for 15 minutes –31.48±0.76 °C, 30 minutes – 32.41±0.82 degrees on 45th minute – 32.85±0.64 °C 60 minutes – 33.1±0.69 °C. At 90 minutes after the blockade noted the probable (p≤0,05) increased skin temperature – 33.74±0.7 degrees. In periods studies with 120 to 210 minutes after the blockade also recorded significantly (p≤0.05) temperature increase compared to the original data, which reached a maximum of 210 minutes and was 34.06±0.71 °C.
On average, the group of animals in the period observed temperature increase 3.42 °C compared with the original data. At 240 and 270 minutes after the blockade of the temperatures of the forearm slightly decreased and were not statistically significant. At the 300-th and 330 minutes – the temperatures were increased and noted the likely (p≤0.05) of change – 33.84±0.68 and 33.55±0.7 degrees respectively. With 360 minutes after administration of bupivacaine skin temperature performance is not statistically different from the original data, and the last period of study a day after the blockade amounted to 30.94±0.63 °C. The most important indicators of skin temperature acquired 210 min – 34.06±0.71 °C. Individual performance skin temperature were increased compared to baseline when performing the blockade to 5.3 °C. Skin temperature on the right limb in animals has changed slightly and for the entire period was of no statistically significant. In the preparatory period it was 30.89±0.55 °C and maximum values, it reached 540 minutes after brachial plexus blockade left limbs and animals was 31.09 ± 0.54 °C. Individually fluctuation were to 1.1 °C, and ranged from 28.1 to 32.3 °C.
After the brachial plexus blockade of left limbs by 0.2 % bupivacaine solution of in dogs determined the probable (p≤0.05) increased skin temperature of the extremities in the area of the forearm from 90 th to 210 minutes, and 300 th and 330 minutes, which reached a maximum of 210 minutes and was 34.06±0.71 °C. Individual performance skin temperature increased to 5.3 °C.
Skin temperature in the region of the right limb control indicators which were not small change reliability for the entire period of observation, individual performance varied to 1.1 °C.
Skin temperature of thoratic limbs blockade after the local anesthetic blockade manifestation the sympathetic component of the blockade, which is by improving tissue perfusion can lead to less time treatment of animals.
Key words: brachial plexus block, nerve stimulation, infra-red thermometry, sympathetic blockade component, bupivacaine, dogs.
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