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Case of aspergillosis and aspergilotoxicosis calves of different age groups

This article describes the case of calves diseases on one of the Kiev region farms, observed in 2013, and accompanied by animals of different age groups coughing without the characteristic signs of colds, retarded growth and development, depletion and sporadic deaths . When the weather changes from wet to dry or frosty, the cough stopped. More than 11% of the total number of calves’ age 3–6 months with signs of pulmonary disease was retired. Mycological study found out that 1 g of food fed to the animals contained about 800 thousand of CFU. Mycobiota was introduced with species A. fumigatus, which was dominant as well as A. oshraсeus, Rhizopus oryzae, Absidia sorymbifera, Mucor spp. and Penicillium spp. was installed A. fumigatus isolated strain ability to produce kojic acid was determined with qualitative reaction with chloride.

In order to determine the cause of illness and death of calves autopsies on the farm and breakout room the Bila Tserkva NAU were carried out. Acoording to the autopsy result we assumed aspergillosis and decided to conduct a study to determine the feed degree of contamination by fungi, species composition and toxigenicity and to make seeding on nutrient medium pieces of damaged organs, for the purpose of abjection. To do this, samples of feed - straw, alfalfa hay and feed were plated on Chapek medium in Petri dishes and incubated at the temperature of 24 and 37 °C. Applying the method of serial dilutions, we determined the number of CFU of fungi in 1 g of food. Since the largest share was represented by genus Aspergillus, including isolated dominated Aspergillus fumigatus, to determine their ability to produce kojic acid we used qualitative reaction of ferric chloride.

Results and discussion. Dead animals who underwent autopsy were of poor nutritional status or exhausted, with signs of underdevelopment. The skin was gray covered with long, tousled fur. Mucous membrane orifices were gray or gray- reddish color. The stomach of calves contained a moderate or small amount of feed, in the structure of which roughage dominated. There has been found out that: jelly-like infiltrates in the areas of laryngeal-pharyngeal ring, pericardium and both renal pelvis, hydro-pericarditis, multiple adhesions between the lung and pleura costal areas of cardiac and apical parts, sero-fibrinous pleurisy, lobar pneumonia, abscessed lobar kind heart, and riding additional shares, acute congestive hyperemia and edema, myocardial dystrophy protein and kidney. The death of the animals occurred as a result of persistent pulmonary insufficiency caused lobar pneumonia, complicated by pleurisy abscessed.

In the abdomen there prevailed peritonitis, multiple encapsulated abscesses in the liver and its toxic degeneration, septic swelling and spleen softening, gastritis, inflammation of serous mesenteric lymph nodes, protein and fatty degeneration of the kidney (left), acute, catarrhal cholecystitis, swelling of the connective tissue around the renal pelvis (left kidney).

Mycological study has found out that 1 g of food fed to the animals contained 800 thousand CFU . Mycobiota was represented by A. fumigatus species, which was dominant, as well as A. fumigatus, A. oshraseys, Rhizopus oryzae, Absidia sorymbifera, Mucor spp. and Penicilliym spp. Qualitative reaction of iron chloride has displayed the capacity of the isolated strain of A. fumigatus to produce kojic acid.

Micromicetes isolated from the test material are potential producers of ochratoxin aflatoxins, steryпmatocystines, asperhilic and kojic acids and other mycotoxins.

Significant contamination of the feed with Aspergillus fungi genus has caused the accumulation of the toxic metabolites that are coming into the body in small amounts that did not cause the animals rapid death. However, the mycotoxins caused stomach and small intestine inflammation, it conditioned immune suppression by affecting the local lymphoid aggregates (solitary follicles). On the basis of the latter mucous membrane ulcers formed, which tended to increase, covering large areas. Immunosuppressive effect of mycotoxins contributed to the complications of the respiratory system, and calves died from chronic pneumonia.

Conclusions. 1. The conducted studies found out that feeding forage intensively contaminated with micromicetes (about 800 thousand CFU in 1 g ) of various kinds, with among isolates of A. fumigatus dominating, capable of kojic acid biosynthesis caused the animals disease and death;

2. Associated effect of the contaminants and their metabolites in sublethal concentrations and caused chronic poisoning animals.

Key words: microscopic fungi, lung disease, calves.

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