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Cytokines – immunoreactivity regulatory mechanisms of organism

The cytokines are heterogeneous group of low molecular weight peptides, which secret by nuclear cells as response to irritation. They take part in various physiological and pathophysiological reactions, therefore their value to maintain the homeostasis of the body cannot be overestimate. However, excessive production of regulatory molecules can cause a cytokine storm, which may be an unfavorable factor in the pathogenesis. Dynamic determination of the level of cytokines in biological fluids allows objectively assessing the state of the immune system of animals, to determine the activity of different types of immune cells, accurately predict of the pathological process. The discovery of many mediators of intercellular interactions improved our understanding of the regulation of mechanisms of immunoreactivity, at the same time revealing its complexity.

The cytokines represent an integral system of biologically active molecules, the main components of which are: the producer's cells, the protein itself of the cytokine, its receptor and the target cell. Therefore, the biological effect of the cytokine should be understood not as the action of a particular mediator, but as a result of its interaction with the cell. Changing of the functional state of the cell after binding of an external ligand (cytokine) with receptor on a target cell, depend on considerable extent on the internal cell differentiation program. The cytokine launches such a program. Therefore, one and the same cytokine can cause the most diverse and even opposite effects in different cells.

The biological activity of cytokines is manifested only after binding to its receptors located on the surface of the cell membranes of the targets. Most cytokine receptors are transmembrane glycoproteins, which consist of two or more subunits.

This review summarizes the current information regarding the main components of the cytokine system, systematic, and the mechanisms for the functioning of the cytokines lining. It was focused attention on regulating cellular mediators type of the immune response.

Key words: review, cytokines, functions, receptors, systematic, apoptosis, interleukins.

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