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Diagnosis and combined therapy for calves catarrhal pneumonia

There are many different efficient means and methods of treatment of animals suffering from bluetongue bronchopneumonia. To achieve positive results, combined treatment should be aimed at eliminating violations feeding, care, maintenance, improve immune status, application of therapy: pathogenetic, causal and symptomatic with the peculiarities of the disease and the general condition of the animal.

The aim was to determine the effectiveness of adjuvant therapy with antibiotics (ceftriaxone, vetrimoksyn) of the clinical examination hematological, biochemical, immunological studies of blood sick calves and justify their use for therapeutic catarrhal pneumonia.

The study was conducted under conditions of experimental farm "Polyvanivka" Magdalinovsk  Dnipropetrovsk region. Studied Ukrainian gray breed calves aged 2–3 months, patients with bluetongue bronchopneumonia. The animals were selected on the basis analohiv. Dlya research used three groups of calves Grey Ukrainian breed.

Animal control group was treated by the method of farming using benzylpenicillin sodium salt 10 tys.OD. and streptomycin sulfate at a dose of 0,01 g per 1 kg of animal dissolved 0,5% novocaine and asking sulfadimezin dose of 2 g 2 times a day internally. With symptomatic drugs used: caffeine sodium benzoate internally 2 g 2 times a day and coughing out: ammonium chloride at a dose of 5,0–2 times a day.

The animals of the second group used antibiotic ceftriaxone 500 mg intramuscularly 1 time per day. Ceftriaxone is a semisynthetic antibiotic with a group of third-generation cephalosporins. The drug has a bactericidal action, active against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Also prescribed symptomatic therapy (coughing out – ammonium chloride, internally, heart – caffeine sodium benzoate – 2 times a day), nonspecific therapy (nonspecific gamma globulin at a dose of 0,5 ml / kg body weight subcutaneously every 48 hours).

The animals of the third group was injected  by vetrimoksyn - suspension for injection, which is highly bactericidal action.

Antibiotic peptidase inhibits microorganisms is a violation of osmotic balance, resulting in the death of their development stage. The drug is active against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Vetrimoksyn was administered at a dose of 1 ml per 10 kg body weight 1 time per day - which corresponds to 3,5 ml. Symptomatic treatment: tryvitamin - intramuscularly, 5 ml of 1 every three days, injected glucose - bicarbonate mixture at the rate of 1 ml/kg body weight of the composition: 5,0 g of glucose, 6,5 g of sodium hidrokarbonate 4-5 g of salt dissolved in 1 liter of bidistilled water solution not boiled.

When diagnosed with clinical symptoms into account, a history, an analysis of the epizootic situation in the economy and the results of laboratory tests of blood (proteins, glycoproteins, non-specific resistance, formed elements, Ca, P, carotene).
In sick animals observed depressed general condition, loss of appetite, sero-catarrhal discharge from the nasal cavity, cough, increased respiratory rate, heart rate, overall body temperature. Auscultation of the lungs crackling noted, small bulbs moist rales and pathological bronchial breath, percussion found in limited areas of upper blunting  and cardiac lobes of the lungs.

The therapeutic effect of antibacterial drugs (ceftriaxone and vetrimoksyn) contributed to weakening the inflammatory process in the lung tissue, resulting in a number of albumin in the experimental group 1 increased to 43,20±1,20 %, 2 experimental group – to 42,7±1,50 %. In addition calves research groups have noted an increase in the number of a-globulins from 14,87±0,39 to 17,4±0,45 % 1 research, group and from 16 to 0±0,28 18,4±0,2 2 % in the experimental group. Calves control group recorded a slight increase in globulin (from 17,30±0,72 to 17,7±0,8 %).

After treatment in most animals of control and experimental groups revealed recovery of appetite, absence of cough, nasal leakage, normalized pulse rate, body temperature, decreased and disappeared parts of blunting wheezing. In conducting research hematological marked increase in the number of red blood cells under all experimental groups of calves at 8,11; 20,65; 19,91 %, while the number of white blood cells decreased respectively by 47,83; 50,0; 60,44 %. The content of hemoglobin at the end of treatment was 98,6±2,28 g/l in the control group calves, while the experimental groups respectively – 107,5±2,15; 108,4±3,12 g/l, at 20,65 and 19,91 % higher than the control group.

The complex treatment of calves for bluetongue bronchopneumonia, contributed to higher indices of nonspecific resistance, normalization of blood protein spectrum, sharing glycoproteins and enhance hematopoiesis. The data obtained by the use of antibiotics ceftriaxone and vetrimoksynu contributed to rapid normalization of bactericidal activity of blood and convalescence animals. So, in the animals of the experimental group activity increased by 47,69 % and in animal of 2nd at 54,50 % to 17,86±0,32 %. Bactericidal activity in serum of calves increased by – 11,59; 12.86; 13,51 %.

Analyzing the results of research should be noted that the complex treatment of calves used for catarrhal pneumonia helps eliminate clinical symptoms, recovery indices of nonspecific resistance, protein spectrum of blood and hematopoiesis. In the treatment of calves second experimental group for bluetongue bronchopneumonia, where complex treatment included antibiotic vetrimoksyn full clinical recovery was observed on 7–8-th day of treatment in 93,3 %. Calves of first experimental group, which was used in the treatment of ceftriaxone clinical recovery was observed on 8–9 th day in and only 80,8 % in the control group of animals recovery occurred on 10–13 days at 60 %.

The complex treatment of calves for bluetongue pneumonia with antibiotics ceftriaxone and vetrimoksyn, symptomatic and regulating acid-base status, provides adequate therapeutic effect accordingly – in 93,3 and 80,8 % of animals shorten terms of their treatment to 7–10 days hematolohichni normalizes parameters, protein spectrum of blood increases nonspecific resistance.

Key words: bronchopnevmonia, calves, nonspecific resistance blood protein speetrum, sharing glycoproteins ceftriacone, vetrimoksyn, hematological.

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