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Differential epidural block using bupivacaine and ropivacaine for dogs
The paper deals with the results of investigation differential epidural blockade in dogs using 0.2% and 0.25%
bupivacaine solution, 0.2% and 0.375% solution ropivacaine. Its use provides for an autonomic and sensory blockade
component in the absence of motor blockade component. It is clinically manifested sympathetic block, analgesia, and
preservation of function of pelvic limbs. This effect is based by the anatomical structure of the peripheral nerve, consisting of
different in structure and function of the fibers and the properties of some local anesthetics that can cause selective blockade
of nerve fibers.
The purpose and objectives of the study - the possibility of determining the flow and differential epidural blockade in the
presence of sensory blockade without motor component bupivacaine 0.2% and 0.25%, ropivacaine 0.2% and 0.375% in
dogs. The material for the study were 9 dogs weighing 9-20 kg, body length of 56 to 89 cm.
The based technique blockade was lumbosacral epidural punction and epidural catheterization. Volume of local anes-
thetic was calculated based on the length of the trunk of the body (0.5-0.7 ml per 10 cm from the back to the root of the tail)
and body weight (0.35 ml per 1 kg). The first stage of the study was xylasine sedation and catheterization of epidural space
of the catheter tunneling deep in the tissues. The end of the catheter position at the fifth lumbar vertebra. The second stage
was epidurals and determine its effects on the body. Standard solutions of bupivacaine and ropivacaine diluted to the desired
concentration by adding to them before use physiological sodium chloride solution. Options blockade recorded in the run
after injections with an interval of 5 min for the first 90 minutes, then at intervals of 15 minutes to 420 minutes from the
period of administration.
Study parameters of the motor block was performed according to ataxia scale: 0 - no ataxia; 1 - asynchronous
movements, ataxia barely noticeable; 2 - poor ataxia; 3 - average ataxia; 4 - significant ataxia, animal can standing;
5 - severe ataxia, animal can not stand. Options sensory component of pain blockade determined breakdown and registration
options excitability of nerves in the area of anesthesia by nerve stimulation. Pain compression test performed by haemostatic
forceps interdigital tissue gap and characterized three states - the complete absence of pain sensitivity, partial absence,
presence of pain sensitivity. Options excitability determined by nerve stimulation Stimuplex HNS 12 with parameters
0.3 ms, 1 Hz, and insulated needles are positioned at a depth of 1 cm of anesthesia area. We determined the minimum
amperage, which caused a contraction of the muscles around the needle.
Conclusions. 1. Epidural administration of bupivacaine 0.2% solution is pronounced and lasting effect of differential
blockade in dogs. Motor and sensory components blockade manifested almost simultaneously, but the duration of the motor
block is shorter than the sensory. The blockade is accompanied by S - shaped of thrunk, and most of the animals defecate
phenomenon, indicating that increased peristalsis due to sympathetic block.
2. Ropivacaine as 0.375% solution is causing pronounced effect of differential blockade in dogs that the term is shorter
and less pronounced characterized component of motor blockade than bupivacaine 0.2% solution. 0.2% solution ropivacaine
epidural has less effect as sensory and motor blockade.
3. The scheme determining motor and sensory components blockade in dogs by evaluating ataxia in points, pain and
nerve stimulation test is objective and usable. 4. For clinical practice as a drug of choice for differential epidural blockade is
the most appropriate solution 0.2% bupivacaine because it combines the enduring quality and low cost. Widespread use may
be restricted by ropivacaine higher cost.
Prospects for further research is the use of 0.2% bupivacaine solution of the differential blockade in dogs in a clinical
Key words: differential epidural block, bupivacaine, ropivacaine, motor and sensory blockade component, dogs, nerve
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