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Distribution and causes of inguinal-scrotum hernia in pigs on modern pig complexes

The hernias in pigs often result in significant economic losses for farmers on the modern pig complexes That is why the main purpose of this study was to establish the causes and etiologic role of genetic factors for inguinal-scrotum hernia in pigs on the modern pig complexes.

The study was conducted in modern piggery complex of SE "Clearing-Agro" Skvira district of Kyiv region. To understand the distribution and causes of hernias development in pigs there were conducted analysis of the records of the primary documentation, veterinary and livestock reports and personal observations (clinical examination of pigs, observation of sick animals before and after the operation, monitoring of topographic anatomical structural features of the hernia sac and the hernia hole at the time of herniotomy) during the 2012–2013 years.

It was established that for the artificial insemination of sows on the farm during the years 2012-2013 there was used the semen of 7-boars-sires, 3 of which were hybrids of the meat line (Optimus, 2- and 4-rock hybrids), and 4 - animal breeds Yorkshire and Landrace. As the results of the study, there was established significant gap among these boars as to their descendants piglets morbidity level.

Thus, the most of the animals with hernia (292 pigs out of 333, that represented 87.7 %) were obtained from 3 boars hybrids. The greatest number of the sick piglets (137 or 41.2 %) was found among the descendants of boar hybrid Optimus, and the rest of the piglets were descendants of 2 boars' lines 2- and 4-hybrides. Only 41 animal or 12.3 % of all that had hernia were found among the descendants of the 4 other boars, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds. Based on these results we conclude on the significant differences among the boars regarding the number of pigs with hernia.

In cases we did the same calculation but only for the pigs with inguinal-scrotum hernia, there was found that from 3 boars of meat hybrids there were received 93.4 % (271 of pigs with inguinal-scrotum hernia), and from the rest of the boars there were found only 6.6 % of the sick pigs.

On the investigated farm, during the years 2012–2013, the castration of the male piglets was carried out in a 3-day age pigs with closed-open bloody method using special forceps. During the operation there were used a special technique that enable the doctor to examine both the spermatic cord and the total vaginal membrane. There was found that many of male piglets, the descendants of hybrids boars, showed slightly thicker than usual spermatic cord, covered with a total vaginal membrane. At the same time the thickness of the external (and sometimes internal) kremaster muscle was increased. The thickening of the spermatic cord among the operated pigs who were descendants of boars of Landrace and Yorkshire breeds were not registered.

The subsequent observation of castrated pig during the further period (before weaning) there were noticed that pigs with inguinal-scrotal hernias (that appeared after castration) made up the bulk of the pig out of those which during castration showed thickening of the spermatic cord.

Overall, the results of the research allow us to make the following conclusions. The vast majority of pigs with inguinal-scrotum hernias (93.4 % or 271 head) were descendants of boars of meat hybrids. In male hybrids offspring of the meat boars there were found the thickening of the spermatic cord during castration. They also showed increased thickness of the external (and sometimes internal) kremaster muscle, accompanied by an increase in the size of the internal inguinal ring and the emergence of intravaginal hernias.

From all of this we conclude that an important area for further research is the introduction of monitoring to the use of breeding boars of meat hybrids and developing the algorithm of different castration methods that while detecting defects in the structure of the spermatic cord and inguinal channel, allow to avoid and prevent the hernias in pigs.

Key words: pigs, hernia, inguinal-scrotal, intravaginal, distribution, etiology, meat boars hybrids, kremaster.

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