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Distribution and structure of hernias in pigs on a modern pig farms
The approaches to welfare, feeding, breeding and veterinary treatments of swine diseases in today's intensive pig farm production are changing very quickly. The boars of meat breeds or hybrids are increasingly used for insemination of sows on the farms. Under these conditions the structure of hernia appearance in pigs changes. It is because factors that give rise to hernia are changing.
The aim of the study was to examine the distribution and determine the causes of hernia in pigs in modern pig industry. The study was performed under conditions of SE "Kliring-Agro" Skvira district, Kyiv region. To study the distribution of hernias, the elucidation of the structure and causes of hernia were conducted through analysis of records in the primary veterinary and livestock reports and our own observations were made during 2012-2013 years. The conclusion about the extent of the hernia contents mobility was made by the clinical examination of affected animals before and during the surgery.
There were registered 138 piglets with hernia in 2012 and 197 in 2013, which was, respectively, 2.7 and 3.0 % of the total number of animals on the farm. Among the identified 335 cases 86.6 % (290 animals) were inguinal-scrotal, 11.9 % (40 animals) – umbilical, and 1.5 % (5 animals) – other hernia. Scrotal hernia inguinal, manifested mainly in males (98.3%) and in females there were identified only single cases of inguinal hernia. Umbilical hernia was found in the same number of pigs in both sexes (50 %). Other hernias (lateral abdominal wall and white line) showed slight females preference (60.0 %). By studying the structure of hernia appearance depending on the age of the pigs there were found significant differences between the age groups: 92.2 % of patients were weaned piglets, 4.8 % – rearing pigs, 2.7 % - fattening pigs and only 0.6% – sows. There were established significant differences as to localization of hernias among different age groups in pigs. In particular, the inguinal scrotal hernia was recorded in 92.2 % piglets before weaning, umbilical – in 7.8 %. At the same time in rearing piglets umbilical hernias were recorded in 73.3 % of the group, inguinal-scrotal – in 20.0 % and other hernias – in 6.7 % of animals. Among the fattening group umbilical hernia was found in 55.6% of pigs, inguinal-scrotal and others hernias – in 22?2% of animals in each subgroup.
Out of all piglets with inguinal-scrotal hernias, 17.9% were diagnosed with insertible hernia, 76.8 % with un-insertible and fixed and 5.3 % – with un-insertible jammed hernia. Out of all piglets with umbilical hernias, 83.3 % were diagnosed with insertible hernia, 12.5 % with un-insertible and fixed and 4.2% – with un-insertible jammed hernia. Thus, among the affected piglets before weaning there was recorded mainly fixed inguinal-scrotal hernias.
The results of the present studies indicate the larger share of piglets with hernias at the time before weaning. At this age in the piglets there were found mainly inguinal-scrotal, and some isolated cases of umbilical hernias. The predominance of fixed un-insertible cases among inguinal-scrotal hernias was due to the fact that at the time of castration (open-closed method) together with the testes there were removed a significant portion of the total vaginal membrane. In such situation, in cases of the internal organs protrusion in the inguinal canal (not paved by the total vaginal membrane) they form adhesions with fascia.
We believe that an important area of future research is to examine the relationship of various etiologic features and pathogenic factors of hernia formation pigs on the modern industrial farms and propose on this basis effective measures of its prevention and treatment.
Key words: pigs, hernias, inguinal-scrotal, umbilical, fixed, distribution, etiology, age, sex.
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