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Endogenous intoxication in calves with abomazoenteritis
Analysis of the literature confirms that the basic mechanisms of the development of endotoxemia is the prevalence of catabolic over anabolic processes, which leads to the accumulation of the intermediate and the increased concentrations of the toxic end-products of normal metabolism; decompensation humoral regulatory systems with the accumulation of toxic concentrations of effector components – a number of enzymes, kinins and other vasoactive peptides, biologically active protein degradation products, prostaglandins, aphylatoxin, inflammatory mediators, etc.
Endotoxemia should be seen as a change in the regulation of metabolism, or the body's metabolic response to any aggressive factor. Some authors include in the different concept.
In accordance with the terminology in Russian exogenous intoxication caused by xenobiotics, commonly referred to as poisoning and endogenous intoxication associated with the accumulation of toxic substances in the body's own metabolism (autointoxication).
At the heart of the development of gastrointestinal disorders of any origin is adopted indigestion feed, change the immune defense of the organism and dysbiosis development.
The appearance of pathological processes in any form enteritis can occur in different ways, but its development is made up of major events, where each factor is a logical consequence previous and the beginning of the next.
The action of various etiological factors on calf body going through neural pathways to the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of the digestive, excretory functions, cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine systems, maintaining a certain level of all types of metabolism. In young animals the motility of the stomach and intestines is regulated only by the stimulating effect of the vagus nerve. Activities of the autonomic nervous system is controlled by a high content of catecholamines. They increase the tone of the smooth muscle and thereby cause increased peristalsis and the occurrence of diarrhea.
Glycocalyx abomasum mucosa has a high viscosity, and separating properties against different molecular weight, mechanical performs a protective function and can inhibit the rate of diffusion of substances passing through this layer.
The initial link of diarrhea is a violation of the proteolysis of the protein components of colostrum, the lack of lactose hydrolysis and partial curdling of colostrum and milk in the stomach on a background of morphofunctional immaturity, reduced natural resistance and immune reactivity. Increased microbial fermentation in the stomach and intestines contributes to increased production and accumulation of toxic products, enhance peristalsis and weakened barrier function and antitoxic digestive organs, primarily the liver.
There comes a general intoxication, impaired metabolism, acid-base balance, developing intestinal dysbiosis. The result of the action of toxins on the body of the animal is the development of dystrophy, cardiovascular disease, poor circulation, venous stasis development, central nervous system depression functions.
High permeability of the intestinal wall of calves in early postnatal ontogenesis, as well as other anatomical and physiological features (open ductus venosus, frequent late overgrowth foramen ovale), a limited functional capacity of the liver create preconditions for the rapid development of the whole organism toxicity.
Тhe features of clinical and hematological manifestations of endogenous intoxication in 20 clinically healthy and sick calves.
Acute abomasoenteritis recorded for calves aged from 30 days of age, tend to recover from dyspepsia and was accompanied by a violation of the digestive processes and the intoxication of the organism. The basic features of abomasoenteritis: dry nasal mirror, the reduction or lack of appetite, and sometimes low-grade fever, increased the number of more normal for fecal consistency, increased peristaltic intestinal noises, pain on palpation of the abdomen.
During the chronic sick calves determined emaciation and often atrophy of the thigh muscle groups, a perversion of appetite.
Electrocardiography installed tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, reducing the voltage of the teeth, their dullness, splitting of the P wave, smoothed or negative T-wave, decrease in RS-T segment below the contour lines, the expansion of the QRS complex, irregular heart rhythm, signs of secondary myocardosis.
An ultrasound scan found an increase in the amount of rennet; the walls unevenly thickened, in the presence in hypoechoic content of rounded casein clots, increasing echogenicity of the liver, an increase in the amount of the gallbladder.
In laboratory blood tests showed a high amount of hemoglobin, red blood cells and white blood cells, total protein content of middle molecules, urea, kreatinine, increased ASAT activity, increased lipid peroxidation (LPO).
In the study of the activity of such a component of antioxidant protection as the enzyme catalase, we found that changes in this index in the serum and in red blood cells is mixed trends.
In severe cases the content of middle agents reached 1.2-1.4 ed.A / ml, which is an integral indicator of developing endogenous intoxication and intensity of catabolic processes in the body.
In conclusion, we can conclude that calves abomazoenteritis marked the development of endogenous intoxication and multiple organ renal hepatic failure, which must be considered during the detoxification therapy.
Key words: calves, blood, endotoxicosis, endogenous intoxication, abomazoenterit.
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