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The epizootic monitoring and basic principles of prevention and control measures at bovine leukemia in the Bila Tserkva area farms
There were shown the particularities of epizootic process in cattle with leukemia on the farms of Bila Tserkva area and the use of different methods for diagnosis and rehabilitation of endemic farms. The epizootic situation with leukemia in Bila Tserkva area farms for 2002–2012 years were based on the results of serological (RID) research.
The analyses of serological tests for bovine leukemia in Bila Tserkva area farms for 2002 – 2012 years proves difficult epizootic situation and some special patterns in the trend of its development. The total number of RID-positive cattle ranged from 8.4% in 2002 to 1.7% in 2012. Number of RID-positive cows, generally correlates with the total number antibody-bearing animals.
This pattern of epizootic dynamics of the process, in our opinion, is associated with incomplete removal of the stud sources of pathogen.
A year of 2005 can be considered a positive turning point in organizing the control measures against cattle leukemia on the farms in the area. Animals with leukemia were over-kept the 16 farms. It was done by complete or partial separation of the RID+ animals in individual departments or in separate rooms (groups). For the year 1777 revealed ROD + animals were detected on 18 farms.
The serological diagnosis of leukemia gave the opportunity to explore epizootic situation on the farms in Bila Tserkva area and to isolate RID-infected animals with subsequent sending them to the slaughter. It was one of the key factors in the system of health measures that allowed the disposing of leukemia on the farms.
The factor that reduces the effectiveness of anti-leukemia measures is a significant number of farms with RID-positive animals and the fact that they have not been declared endemic.
From 2002 to 2007 identification of cows with hematologic signs of the disease increased from 4,2 to 18,8%.
Since 2008, fewer patients with hematologically diagnosed leukemia were identified. In 2008, the percentage of diagnosed patients was still significant – 18.8%, in 2009 – 12.1%. A slight increase in the percentage of patients with hematological changes in 2010 (up to 14.7%) was due to a reduction of the haematologically studied stock.
In 2011 hematological diagnosing of animals with leukemia had been stopped in the area.
The organization of specific health measures in each farm and region as a whole, (have gave yielded) positive results. In 2002 the infected animals were allocated into 22 farms, after 2004 the number of endemic farms decreased annually. In 2011 only in ME "BC Bakery" there were identified 15 infected animals. Thus the implementation of evidence-based system of health measures had a positive impact on the course of the process and the dynamics of epizootic. In 2011 compared with 2002, the total number of infected animals decreased in 42 times and among the cows in 34.2 times.
It is planned in 2013 to complete the recovery of farm area of leukemia.
Conclusions. 1. Complicated epizootic situation with leukemia is due to inadequate compliance to the current "Guidelines for the prevention and recovery of cattle from leukemia", organizational and special measures on elimination of bovine leucosis.
2. The results of serological (RID) investigation of cattle with leukemia indicate complex epizootic situation. The total number of RID-positive cattle ranged from 8.4% in 2002 to 1.7% in 2012. The number of RID-positive cows, generally correlates with the total number antibody-bearing cows. This pattern of epizootic dynamics is associated with incomplete removal of the pathogen sources from the herd.
3. The number of detected hematologically sick animals was significant with a range from 4.2 to 18.8%, indicating considerable tensional epizootic process of leucosis on the farms. The hematological selection of cows with leucosis stopped in 2011.
Key words: cattle, epizootic process, bovine leukemia (VLVRH), hematological investigation.
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