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The epizootic situation and organizational and methodological principles of recovery from leukemia farms in Ukraine

The high level of organization and measures to combat the disease allowed making free of bovine leucosis the countries such as Belgium, Ireland, Norway.  Government programs implemented to combat the disease are also succeeding in European countries such as Germany, Poland, Bulgaria, and the Baltic states.

In Ukraine the basic measures to prevent and control bovine leukemia are imprinted in the "Рlan of control measures for cattle leukemia in Ukraine" issued in 1985-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010 years. The authors participated in the development and effective implementation of these plans.

Knowledge of the effect of epizootic process and development of the basis for evidence-based measures can manage this epizootic process until the complete recovery of the farm. The significant factor in the theory and practice of epizootic process and control measures are good knowledge of the epizootic situation.

We studied the epizootic situation with bovine leucosis on Ukrainian farms for 1995-2012 years. The important task while controlling the development of epizootic process is to reduce its intensity, which is characterized by a decrease in the number of affected settlements, the number of sick animals and a significant reduction in the number of infected livestock and amount of pathogens. The number of households where leukemia recorded in 2012 (199) decreased compared with 1995 (7777) in 39,9 times and the number of sick animals in 47,8 times.

In the dynamics of leukemia development in cattle farms in Ukraine there is an evident trend to its extinction. This increases the share of affected households with a low degree of infestation and, conversely, decreases the number of farms with a high degree of infestation.

Formulated pattern in the development of epizootic process for bovine leukemia farms in Ukraine, which is characterized by reduced intensity, clearly confirmed the distinction of totally affected farms.

The development of epizootic process for bovine leukemia can be roughly divided into three periods. In the first period of 1996-1999 years there was significant reduction in the annual fraction of affected households from 61,9% to 33,1% respectively. The second period from 2000 to 2006 is characterized by relative stability with some modest fluctuations in the number of the affected households between 23,35% in 2000 and 26,35% in 2006. The third period 2007-2012 was characterized by low intensity epizootic process with the prospect of full recovery of  leukemia.

Carrying out preventive measures and health measures it is important to diagnose timely and accurately.

Under instructions from 09.28.1992 year the main method of intravital diagnosis of leukemia was serologic – reaction of immunodiffusion (RID). Currently operating instructions of 21.12.2007 yr. №21 indicate that basic techniques for lifetime diagnosis of leukemia is the reaction immunodiffusion and ELISA. For the testing especially valuable animals or arbitration the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be applied. The clinical-hematological, pathological-anatomical and histological methods are used to determine the stage of the disease and the morphological nature of leukemia in seropositive animals.

Despite the fact that the family is one of the main diagnostic methods, ELISA is widely used in the national program to combat leukemia in cattle in many countries, many of which have already been successfully completed.

Conclusions: 1. Epizootic process on the farms affected with bovine leukemia in Ukraine in 1995-2012 g.g. characterized by a decreased tension. 2. The dynamics of epizootic leukemia have a distinct trend to extinction. 3. The control measures taken on the Ukrainian farms are effective.

Key words: bovine leukemia, epizootic situation,  control measures.

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