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Epizootology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of leptospirosis in a private veterinary clinic in Vinnitsa in 2015-2016.
Introduction. Leptospirosis is spread throughout the world, found on all continents, except Antarctica. This disease among humans and animals is now known in more than 80 countries (World Health Organization). Activity of the Leptospirosis Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (LERG) supported by WHO, OIE FAO UN. WHO emphasizes that there is less information about the real incidence of leptospirosis in humans on global scale. Every year the incidence ranges from 0.1 to 1 per 100,000 people living in a temperate climate, and in the tropical climate, this rate increases to 10 or is more than 100,000 people. Leptospirosis is distributed throughout the Ukraine among productive animals (ruminant, horses, pigs) and pets (dogs and cats). The main danger of leptospirosis is for people of certain professional groups, including livestock, veterinary doctors, farmers, hunters, fishermen, meat workers, people working on marsh meadows, meliorators, miners, soldiers, workers of sewage treatment plants and sewers. Significant is the risk of an outbreak of the disease among the population affected by flood areas. Infected dogs is a threat to people, especially their owners and famaly. For example, slum dwellers who live in poor sanitation and have close contact with animals with potential leptospirosis, the risk of leptospirosis is 5 times higher than for people from other communities. Leptospirosis of dogs can be dangerous to the families of their owners, people can be infected through contact with urine and saliva of a infected dog. But some authors do not share the opinion about the high risks of infecting people and indicate only the theoretical risk. There is a need to study the diagnosis of the disease, distribution leptospiros and develop effective and safe schemes of etiotropic and pathogenetic therapy, improvement of the system of prophylactics of leptospirosis.
The goal of research is study of the features of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dogs leptospirosis in Vinnitsa in prive clinic "Veterinary Clinic on Maksymovych street" and Vinnitsa Regional State Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine.
The diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic measures for leptospirosis of dogs that were performed at "Veterinary Clinic on Maksymovych street" and in Vinnitsa Regional State Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine in 2015-2016 were analyzed and assessed. 142 suspected cases of leptospirosis in dogs were detected, 34 cases were confirmed in laboratory. In Vinnytsia regional state veterinary laboratory there performing microscopy urine and serum and serological study by microagglutination test (MAT) by 8 serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, Tarassovi, Hebdomadis, Sejroe, Auatralis. In the laboratory was sent samples: for bacteriological studies (blood in the volume of 3-5 cm3 from diseased animals and fresh urine) in fever period, from 5-7 days diseased dogs sent blood (5 -10 cm3) for serological research (MAT).
The protocol examination of the dogs in the clinic includes registration, collection of anamnestic data, clinical examination with mandatory measurements of body temperature, pulse, respiration. Take into account the clinical signs characteristic of leptospirosis: fever, weakness, apathy, trembling of the muscles, excessive thirst, decreased appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, icterus of the visible mucous surface, enlargement of the liver and spleen, change in the color of the urine, change in color fecal masses, abortion. In the case of detection of these signs in animals, the material for laboratory analysis was taken. Microscopy of blood from suspected dogs was not positive. Microscopy of urine was confirmed diagnosis in 3 dogs. The previous diagnosis was confirmed by serology (MAT) in 34 animals, representing 23.9% of the samples sent to the laboratory, the titres of unvaccinated > 1:50 and vaccinated > 1: 100 were considered positive.
The sick dogs have generally not been vaccinated against leptospirosis or have been vaccinated with a violation of the recommended regimens and terms. The largest number of dogs (67.6%) with leptospirosis was admitted to treatment in the 1st and 2nd quarters of the year (spring-summer). Of the 34 positively responding to the leptospirosis of animals, 29.4% were affected by serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and 41.1% of the serogroup Canicola. Mixed reactions (Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Pomona) accounted for 29.4% of the total number of positive samples.
Complex therapy was used for treatment: symptomatic, pathogenetic, diet therapy and etiotropic. Etiotropic therapy includ using 2-step antibiotic therapy, which was aimed at eliminating the pathogen from the body and was assigned individually depending on the availability of drugs and economic considerations. During the observation period, the clinic used 4 schemes for the use of two-component antibiotic therapy, each schemes was used on 8-12 sick dogs. Schemes of treatment include a) Penstrep-400 (penicillin G and dehydrostreptomycin) during 7 days and doxycycline during 14 days; b) Farmazin-50 (tilozin) during 7 days and doxycycline during 14 days; c) Ceftriaxon during 7 days and doxycycline during 14 days; d) Streptomycin during 14 days.
For vaccination dogs, owns the preferred vaccine of medium cost is usually, part of them intake leptospiral antigens, it is "Biocan DHPPi + L" and "Multikan-6".
Analysis of measures against leptospirosis revealed a number of shortcomings. The correction actions were proposed for the control of dogs' leptospirosis in following aspects: risk analysis of the leptospirosis infection, danger for dog owners, clinical and laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis, therapy (etiotropic, symptomatic and pathogenetic) general and specific prevention of leptospirosis in dogs.
Conclusions. 1. In the service area of "Veterinary Clinic on Maksimovich street" (Vinnitsa) and Vinnitsa Regional State Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine in 2015-2016 there was a tense epizootic situation regarding dogs' leptospirosis. During the analyzed period, the leptospirosis was confirmed by serology (MAT) in 34 dogs. 2. The main serogroups diagnosed in sick dogs were Canicola and Iterohaemorrhagiae, mixed reactions have also been found in diseased dogs. 3. The high therapeutic efficacy of etiotropic therapy based on bicomponent antibiotics (pentrept-400 and doxycycline, pharmacazine-50 and doxycycline or ceftriaxone and doxycycline) has been confirmed. The way of optimization of treatment in dogs were proposed. 4. Insufficient level of vaccine prophylaxis of leptospirosis in dogs in the clinic's service area was detected. Have been recommended effective vaccines and strict adherence to the rules of vaccinations.
Key words: leptospira, leptospirosis of dogs, microagglutination test, (MAT), serovars of leptospira, epizootic situation, antibiotic therapy.
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