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Evolution of the tense epizootic process bovine tuberculosis in the countries of the world

The study of spreading the mycobacterial infection among cattle in space and time, experimenting with the use of the method of epizootic investigation can indicate panzootic and dynamic tension epizootic process within continents and other countries in the study period - during 1880-2013 years.

The first steps of implementation of tuberculin led to a second phase of evaluation of the epizootic situation of tension and patterns of infection in time and space. Selected new diagnostic test studies have shown that in the last years of the nineteenth century and in the early years of the twentieth century investigated infection of cattle reached: France - 50-80%; UK - 26.6%; Austria - 25-40%; Hungary - 12,6-26,8%; Belgium - up 48,8%; Switzerland - 40-50%; Norway - 5.9%; Sweden – 30,7%; Finland – 13,7%; Germany - up to 75,36% of cows and 35,2% of young cattle. The high intensity of epizootic process studied infections were recorded in other European countries and parts of the world.

In the USSR in 1925 - 1926 years in some areas showed 24,2-68,0% reacting to tuberculin animals, and in the early 30's infection has decreased in the country to 4.1%. In Ukraine in 1927 this figure in some herds of calves was 1,5 – 7,2%, and older animals to 34.4 - 56.9%.

Extensive use tuberculin diagnostics method of detection of infection M. bovis has allowed a new stage not only to assess the true epizootic situation, but also improve the efficiency of anti-TB measures in some countries. In the 50s of the last century began the second wave of activation of anti-TB activities. During these years, infection with M. bovis animals remained high: in Germany - to 17 - 18%, France 8,10% Germany - 25%, Austria – 9,8%, Belgium – 13,8%, Spain - 12% , Indopakistan - 25%, US – 4,1%, Yugoslavia - 16% in Czechoslovakia – 18,9%. In Poland in the 1952-1957 years at slaughter points, was diagnosed with tuberculosis in 39,2% of examined carcasses.

Panzootic signs of bovine tuberculosis were kept in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. In terms of overall assessment of intensity of the epizootic situation in 174 countries, we have divided them into four groups: first - 13 countries (7,5%), where tuberculosis has never been registered; second - healed from mycobacterial infections - 48 (27,6%); third - the disadvantaged concerning tuberculosis - 87 (50.0%); fourth group - 26 countries (14,9%) of uncertain epizootic status.

In Europe of 41 analyzed countries the disease in only one country (2,4%) has never been registered, 16 (39.0%) of successfully cured from infection, and 24 (58.6%) remain underdeveloped; according to this - 47 countries in Asia are divided into several groups: 4 (5,0%), 16 (34,0%), 19 (40,3%); in America - 33 countries: 0, 9 (19,6%), 22 (47,8%); Australia and Oceania - 7 countries, 4 (57,3%), 1 (14,3%), 1 (14,3%).

There are 8 countries with unexplored epizootic situation in Asia, in America - 2, Africa - 15, Australia and Oceania - 1. Countries with such status do not exist in Europe. However, 23 countries remained unfavorable to cure from tuberculosis at the end of 2013, including some countries with developed livestock, such as - Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Russia, UK, etc. This year for the first time in the history of TB in cattle performance achieved widespread TB health measures - the number of recovered exceeded the number of unfavorable countries.

The analysis of the patterns of spreading the bovine tuberculosis in the world leads to the conclusions: firstly, the mycobacterial infection platted confidently a "strong nest" on the territory of each continent. Secondly, the scientists from the whole world must unite in order to establish the true causes of stationary disadvantages concerning productive cattle breeding all over the world and the development of effective vaccines against mycobacterial infection.

Key words: bovine tuberculosis, M. bovis, epizootic situation of the world.

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