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Hematologica parameters of horses with asthma syndrom
Horses often suffer from one of the most common diseases – recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), which in 2016 called “asthma or equine asthma syndrome”. Equine asthma syndrome – is an allergic disease, the mechanism is similar to human asthma, which is characterized by airway inflammation and activation of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets. This disease of older horses, characterized by bronchial hyperactivity, bronchoconstriction and mucus hypersecretion, neutrophilic inflammation of the mucous membranes, the formation of mucous plugs, remodeling the walls of the bronchioles, resulting in airway obstruction.
Asthmatic syndrome of horses is a multifactorial, ecological disease. A number of environmental, immunological, infectious and genetic factors play a leading role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The main etiological factor is the entry into the airways of horses of allergens in the hay and litter, in particular dust and spores of fungi.
The aim was to investigate morphological and biochemical blood parameters in horses for asthma syndrome. The study was conducted on 26 horses, which were divided into two groups: 13 horses for asthmatic syndrome (experimental group) and 13 clinically healthy horses (control group).
All horses were subjected to clinical, laboratory, laryngotracheobronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), followed by cytological examination of the lower respiratory tract.
Attacks of asthmatic syndrome arose when horses were placed in badly ventilated dyne, using hay in feeding with visible growth of mold fungi. The animals of the control group were in identical conditions with the horses of the experimental group.
In 10.8% of horses kept in premises recorded clinical symptoms of asthmatic syndrome. The disease is characterized by latent chronic course with periods of relapse, during which they register nasal excretion, nostril flare, shortness of breath, obvious abdominal lift, crepitation throughout the surface of the lungs, shifted lung caudal border, poor performance. Asthmatic syndrome proceeded without increase in body temperature, only with the complication of secondary bacterial infection registered subfebrile fever.
In the severe course of asthma in horses in the BAL fluid there is a large amount of mucus. In the cytological preparations obtained with BAL, a mixed population of cells was revealed, of which the largest quantitative group was neutrophils (15-85%) of all cells, whereas in healthy horses it was not more than 5%.
The pathophysiological factors determining the peculiarities of asthma, the most important are changes in erythrocyte level of hematopoiesis, which are physiological mechanisms of adaptation to hypoxia.
In patients with asthma of horses, the most informative were morphological indicators of blood. Increased number of RBC, Hb, PCV has been established in patients with horses. Polycythemia arises due to the expressed form of the disease, as the complication of chronic hypoxia. The level of hemoglobin for asthma is determined by the state of equilibrium between the stimulating effect of hypoxia on the production of erythropoietin.
Comparative analysis of indicators that reflect the geometric characteristics of red blood cells of horses with asthma syndrome showed an increase in MCV and MCH.
Asthmatic syndrome may be complicated by the inflammatory process in the respiratory tract of the horses (increase in the number of leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes), and for the long course of the disease, the functioning of protective mechanisms (decrease in the number of lymphocytes).
Thrombocytes may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, confirming the changes in the parameters of thrombopoiesis in horses with asthma syndrome (thrombocytopenia).
In the study of the biochemical profile of horses with asthma syndrome in serum, a higher content of total protein and total calcium, a lower concentration of glucose and magnesium content, an increase in the activity of LF and GGPP in comparison with the control group of animals was established. Consequently, changes in the biochemical parameters of blood in patients with asthma of horses were common, requiring further clinical studies.
Key words: horses, asthma syndrom, asthma, diagnosis, complete blood count, biochemical profile.
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