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Morphological changes in internal organs of ewes in zone of antropogenic poluttion

Sheep breeding in Ukraine is a traditional industry. The main herd size is concentrated in the steppe zone. Sheep produce wool for industry, supply necessary for the production of various fabrics, valuable Karakul curls that play a role in exports, given milk is an important staple food of the population. Critical as raw undoubtedly plays wool. Sheep fur provides valuable raw materials. Sheep's clothing in great demand among the population. Modern technology makes it possible to produce a sheep skins elegant, beautiful and warm coats, jackets and coats, collars and more.

To assess the function of internal organs in farm animals and general clinical use special techniques including: laboratory and instrumental methods such as biopsy, diagnostic laparoscopy, ultrasound, measuring the electrical resistance of the parenchyma, histological examination. Using advanced techniques allows more informative diagnose internal pathology. Introduction to Veterinary Medicine instrumental methods helps in diagnosis and providing for timely and effective treatment.

The study of the internal organs of sheep using special methods of research carried out by many scientists. However, data about the liver and kidneys of contaminated industrial emissions territory is not enough. So consider this topic relevant.

The object of the study were ewes of Romanov breed that stay in agricultural farm of Lugansk NAU.

Soils and feed were tested of lead and cadmium by atomic absorption chromatography.

Ultrasonography was performed after determining the area of the liver blunting the matter 9–11 intercostal spaces and the use of ultrasound scanner Tringa Linear 6.5 MHz. Kidney Research conducted by the same scanner with right and left behind the last rib of a sensor along the spine.

Pieces of bodies collected from slaughtered animals were fixed in 10 % neutral formaldehyde solution, put in alcohols of increasing concentration than in paraffin. Histological pieces 5–10 microns thick performed on microtome, stained with hematoxylin with eosin and Sudan-3.

An important step in the study of animals in contaminated areas is determining the number of trace contaminants in soils and feed. It was established that the concentration of Lead and Cadmium above the average in Luhansk region (0,41–0,46 and 5,3–8,1 mg/kg, respectively). In feed investigated sheep lead content was 3,26 mg/kg cadmium 0,32 mg/kg, which is less than the maximum allowable concentrations of these elements in 3,1 and 2,2 times (10 and 0,7 mg/kg, respectively).

Before the procedure was carried out by us percussion liver blunting line 10 and 9 intercostal spaces. In the same place we held ultrasound body. The result revealed a characteristic pattern: ehohepatohrama fine-grained, homogeneous, consisting of a large number of small and low intensity echo signals that are reflected from its internal structures and placed evenly apart, forming the contours of the body. Inside clearly visualized hepatic vein, internal cavity which is echo negative (dark) and its wall echo positive. In the parenchime of the organ there is a significant amount echo positive areas, especially around the bile ducts.

For sonographic study of renal cortical clearly distinguished and medulla and pelvis. Cortex zone hypoecho negatove, medulla echo negative. The boundary between them is clearly expressed. There is hyperechoic renal pelvis, homogeneous.

Having analyzed the ultrasound examination, concluded that revealed changes characteristic of degenerative processes in parenchymal organs. The reason for this is the presence of contaminants in the feed  namely, their accumulation in internal organs.

For histological examination of the liver, adult sheep, observed some differences from animals studied by biopsy. Central vein containing different amounts of hemolyzed blood. Column structure broken particles, caused by the development of protein malnutrition significant number of hepatocytes. Across the structure revealed little groups of 20–30, randomly placed lipotcytes (formed of dystrophic hepatocytes). Latest located throughout the parenchyma peinky. The structure of the bile ducts saved.

Also in some animals by microscopic examination of the liver in the background distinct signs of granular dystrophy protein cirrhotic observed phenomena in individual areas of the bile ducts. The structure of the latter replaced by young reticular cells. Enlightenment of ducts dilated and contain a homogeneous light brown-yellow mass, indicating signs of cholestasis.

For histological examination of the kidneys revealed that the epithelium most convoluted and straight tubules slightly swell, cytoplasm, cloudy or enlightened, enlarged nuclei, chromatin sparse. In convoluted tubule lumen contains a small amount of weakly eosinophilic mass, indicating the development of protein granular degeneration of the epithelium of the kidneys and the presence of protein in urine composition. Glomerular structure is not changed.

For the study of myocardial structure in longitudinal section transverse cardiomyocytes are not known. Muscle fibers slightly thickened, cytoplasm their slightly eosinophilic nuclei of cardiomyocytes increased, become rounded, chromatin enlightened. These changes indicate the development of protein in the myocardium granular degeneration of cardiomyocytes. Around the various large caliber vessels visible fat tissue deposition.

Histological examination of liver ewes found that the background of unchanged structure individual hepatocytes in a state of granular protein and low fat level microdroped dystrophies. Similar changes have been received by us for the study of liver biopsies sheep from the same area. Additional Sudan-3 staining allowed to identify fat accumulation outside the cells. We believe these changes indicate lipid metabolism in the bodies of sheep that are in areas of anthropogenic pollution.

Key words: ewes, liver, kidney, miocardium, Cadmium, Lead, dystrophy.

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