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Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of analytical methods for the determination of aflatoxins in milk and dairy products (review information)

The dairy industry of Ukraine is developing dynamically, its needs for the quality of raw materials are growing significantly. Detection of mycotoxins in raw milk is one of the main indicators of its safety. The high degree of toxicity of mycotoxins is a threat to the health of the lactating animal, so a large number of them are excreted in milk. If we talk about ruminants, the vast majority of mycotoxins are utilized by microorganisms of the pancreas, which does not occur in monogastric animals, so the list of mycotoxins in their milk can be much wider than the secretion of mammalian mammals. To date, the maximum permissible levels (MRLs) of mycotoxins in raw milk and dairy products have been established. Thus, a comprehensive determination of the content of mycotoxins in the secretion of the breast has not only technological but also important diagnostic value. Milk sample preparation is the most important step in the determination of mycotoxins and consists of sampling, extraction and purification from impurities. For the extraction of aflatoxins, the method of liquid extraction with acetonitrile or chloroform is used. Purification of extracts is carried out on immunoaffinity columns, cartridges with special sorbents or using certain manufacturers (MycoSep®).Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection are used to determine aflatoxin B1 and M1 in raw milk of cows. However, all these methods have a number of disadvantages, namely: long and expensive sample preparation and insufficiently high selectivity. Currently, the complex determination of mycotoxins in various matrices by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS) and the use of modified QuEChERS sample preparation is gaining popularity. The advantage of this technique is the combination of faster and cheaper sample preparation of QuEChERS samples with highly selective LC-MS/MS chromatography. Key words: mycotoxins, raw milk, analytical methods, QuEChERS.

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