You are here

Comparative effectiveness of complex treatment schemes for rabbits with pasalurosis and psoroptosis

Psoroptosis and pasalurosis in rabbits for their maintenance in unsanitary conditions often becomes massive. To increase the effectiveness of treatment of rabbits it is expedient to use combined drugs based on active substances with different mechanisms of action on parasites. Rabbits of the first experimental group applied spray treatment with acaricidal properties of kerosene + glycerol (1:1) three times with an interval of 5 days. Spraying the inner surface of the ears was carried out after mechanical cleaning with gauze swabs soaked in iodine solution + glycerin (1:4). To destroy the helminths, brovadasol plus (5 g/10 kg body weight), orally with food, was administered once. For animals of the second experimental group, the "brovermectin 2%" helminthoacaricide was chosen, it was orally administered at a dose of 1 ml/50 kg body weight, divided into 5 days of regular use. Mechanical treatment of ear with chlorhexidine bigluconate was carried out analogously to rabbits of the first group twice a day for 10 days. On the day of treatment with the rabbits in the second group, Dexacel 0.2 % (KELAN.V., Belgium) was injected intramuscularly with a dose of 0.1/1 kg of body weight, in order to improve the general animal's stanchion.

For combined infestations (scabies and nematodes) it is advisable to use preparations based on ivermectin (in our study, "Brovermectin 2%" at a dose of 1 ml/50 kg, which was divided into 5 parts and daily diluted one part in 1/2 of the daily water) In the case of the need to treat only psoroptosis, one can use a kerosene solution in glycerol (1:1) in the form of a spray.

A prerequisite for the effective treatment of psoropathy is the regular mechanical cleaning of the affected ears from the purulent parasitic exudate or iodine solution + glycerol (1:4) or Chlorhexidine bigluconate 0,05%. It is appropriate to use "Dexacel 02" (one time, non-inflammatory y dose of 0.1/1 kg body weight) in order to improve the general animal's condition.

The use of "Brovadazole plus" (once, with food, at a dose of 5 g/10 kg body weight) did not ensure 100% destruction of Passalurus ambiquus, but due to the short carencia period (only 7 days), if necessary, can be applied to fattening rabbits in the last 2 weeks before slaughter. In contrast to the period of carencia, "Brovermectin 2%" is at least 24 days.

Key words: rabbit, psoroptosis, pasalurosis, brovermectin, acaricidal efficacy, Dexacel 02.

1. Panigrahi, P.N., Mohanty, B.N., Gupta, A.R., Patra, R.C., Dey, S. (2016). Concurrent infestation of Notoedres, Sarcoptic and Psoropticacariosis in rabbit and its management. J Parasit Dis., Vol. 40, pp. 1091–1093. Available at:

2. Hernandez, A.D., Boag, B., Neilson, R., Forrester, N.L. (2018). Variable changes in nematode infection prevalence and intensity after Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus emerged in wild rabbits in Scotland and New Zealand. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife. Vol. 7, Issue 2, pp. 187–195. Available at: j.ijppaw.2018.05.002

3. Raue, K., Heuer, L., Böhm, C., Wolken, S., Epe, C., Strube, C. (2017). 10-year parasitological examination results (2003 to 2012) of faecal samples from horses, ruminants, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits and hedgehogs. Parasitol Res., Vol. 116, 3315 p. Available at:

4. Ilić, T., Stepanović, P., Nenadović, K., Dimitrijević, S. (2018). Improving agricultural production of domestic rabbits in Serbia by follow-up study of their parasitic infections. Iran J Vet Res., Vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 290–297.

5. Mäkitaipale, J., Karvinen, I., Virtala, A.-M. K., Näreaho, A. (2017). Prevalence of intestinal parasites and risk factor analysis for Eimeria infections in Finnish pet rabbits. Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports. Vol. 9, pp. 34–40. Available at:

6. Borovina, E. G. (2011). Morphologicheskie osobennosti kleshhej Psoroptes cuniculi i jeffektivnost' akaricida fenoksifen pri jeksperimental'nom psoroptoze krolikov: diss. … kand. vet. nauk [Morphological features of Psoroptes cuniculi ticks and the efficacy of phenoxifene acaricide in experimental rabbit psoroptosis: dissertation of the candidate of veterinary science: 03.02.11.]. Moscow, 151 p.

7. Bulliot, C. A., Mentre, V., Marignac, G., Polack, B., Chermette, R. (2013). Сase of atypical psoroptic mange in a domestic rabbit. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine. Vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 400–404.

8. Klymenko, O. S. (2015). Poshyrennja ta sezonno-vikova dynamika psoroptozu kroliv u pryvatnyh gospodarstvah Poltavs'koi' oblasti [Distribution and seasonal-age dynamics of psoroptosis of rabbits in private farms of the Poltava region]. International scientific and practical conference world science. Vol. 2, no 2(2), pp. 87–89.

9. Ma, W., Fan, Y., Liu, Z., Hao, Y., Mou, Y., Liu, Y., Zhang, W., Song, X. (2019). The acaricidal activity and mechanism of eugenol on Psoroptes cuniculi. Veterinary Parasitology. Vol. 266, pp. 56–62. Available at: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.12.012

10. Shevchenko, A. A., Shevchenko, L. V. (2010). Bolezni krolikov [Rabbit Diseases]. Moscow, Aquarium Print, 224 p.

11. Soroka, N. M., Beregovec', I. A. (2011). Osoblyvosti epizootologii' psoroptozu kroliv v umovah pryvatnyh gospodarstv [Features of epizootology of rabbits’ psoroptosis in the conditions of private farms]. Naukovyj visnyk Nacional'nogo unyversytetu bioresursiv i pryrodokorystuvannja Ukrai'ny [Scientific herald of the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine]. Issue 167, Part 1, pp. 111–113.

12. Beregovec', I. A., Ponomar, S. I., Pashkevych, I. Ju. (2014). Vplyv zbudnykiv akaroziv na organizm kroliv [Influence of acaroses’ agents on the body of rabbits]. Naukovyj visnyk Nacional'nogo universytetu bioresursiv i pryrodokorystuvannja Ukrai'ny [Scientific herald of the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine]. Issue  201, Part 1, pp. 9–14.

13. Sheng, L., Cui, P., Fang, S.F., Lin, R.Q., Zou, F.C., Zhu X.Q. (2015). Sequence variability in four mitochondrial genes among rabbit pinworm (Passalurus ambiguus) isolates from different localities in China. Mitochondrial DNA. Vol. 26, Issue 4, pp. 501–504. Available at:

14. Liu, G.H., Li, S., Zou, F.C., Wang, C.R., Zhu, X.Q. (2016). The complete mitochondrial genome of rabbit pinworm Passalurus ambiguus: genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis. Parasitol Res. Vol. 115, 423 p. Available at:

15. Marhoon, I. A., Mattar, K. Th., Mohammad, F. I. (2018). Parasitic Infection in Wild Rabbits Oryctolagus Cuniculus. Eurasian Journal of Analytical Chemistry. Vol. 13, Issue 5, 55 p. Available at:

16. Kurade, N. P. (1996). Effect of ivermectin against ear mange mite (Psoroptes cuniculi) in naturally infested rabbits. World Rabbit Science. no. 4 (1), pp. 25-27.

17. Gupta, A. R. (2014). Therapeutic Management of Psoroptes Cuniculi Infestations in Rabbit with Ivermectin. International Journal of Livestock Research. no. 3, pp. 28-29.

18. Kornas, S., Kowal, J., Wierzbowska, I., Basiaga, M., Nosal, P., Niedbala, P. (2015). The Alice – "Follow the White Rabbit" – parasites of farm rabbits based on coproscopy. Annals of Parasitology. Vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 257–261. Available at:

19. Abdel-Gaber, R., Ataya, F., Fouad, D., Daoud M., Alzuhairy S. (2019). Prevalence, Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Analyses of the Rabbit Pinworm, Passalurus ambiguous Rudolphi 1819, in the Domestic Rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus. Acta Parasit. pp. 1–15. Available at:

20. Nong, X., Yang, Y., Yang, G., Chen, F., Tang, M., Wang, G. (2017). Toxicity of Stigmasterol Isolated from Crofton Weed, Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. Against a Rabbit Ear Mite, Psoroptes cuniculi. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. Vol. 49, Issue 4, pp. 1197–1200. Available at:

21. Shang, X.F., Dai, L.X., Liu, Y.Q., Zhao, Z.M., Li, J.C., Yang, G.Z., Yang, C.J. (2019). Acaricidal activity and enzyme inhibitory activity of active compounds of essential oils against Psoroptes cuniculi. Veterinary Parasitology. Vol. 267, pp. 54–59. Available at:

22. Dunstand-Guzmán, E., Hallal-Calleros, C., Morales-Montor, J., Hernández-Velázquez, V. M., Zárate-Ramos, J. J., Hoffman, K. L., Peña-Chora, G., Flores-Pérez, F. I. (2017). Therapeutic use of Bacillus thuringiensis in the treatment of psoroptic mange in naturally infested New Zealand rabbits. Veterinary Parasitology. Vol. 238, pp. 24–29. Available at:

23. Bakhur, Т. І., Poberezhets, S. P. (2016). Zminy hematolohichnykh pokaznykiv u kotiv za notoedrozu ta vnaslidok likuvannia riznymy sposobamy [Changes in hematological indices of cats with notoedrosis and as result of treatment in different ways]. Naukovyi visnyk Lvivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu veterynarnoi medytsyny ta biotekhnolohii imeni S.Z. Gzhytskoho [Scientific messendger of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology named after S.Z. Gzhytskyj]. Vol. 18, no. 2 (66), pp. 3–7. Available at:

24. Speight, C. (2019). Endo and ectoparasites in rabbits. The Veterinary Nurse. Vol. 10, no. 2. Available at:

25. Elhawary, N. M., Sorour, Sh. S. G. H., El-Abasy, M. A., Bazh, E. K., Sultan, K. (2017). A trial of doramectin injection and ivermectin spot-on for treatment of rabbits artificially infested with the ear mite “Psoroptes cuniculi”. Polish journal of veterinary sciences. Vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 521–525. Available at:

26. Pandey, V. S. (1989). Effect of ivermectin on the ear mange mite, Psoroptes cuniculi, of rabbits. Br. Vet. J. no. 145 (1), pp. 54-56.

27. Curtis, S. K. (1990). Use of ivermectin for treatment of ear mite infestation in rabbits. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. no. 196 (7), pp. 1139-1140.

28. Kurade, N. P. (1996). Effect of ivermectin against ear mange mite (Psoroptes cuniculi) in naturally infested rabbits. World Rabbit Science. no. 4 (1), pp. 25-27.

29. Bowman, D. (1992). Effect of ivermectin on the control of ear mites (Psoroptes cuniculi) in naturally infested rabbits. Am. J. Vet. Res. no 53 (1), pp. 105-109.

30. Lu, M., Cai, Y., Yang, S., Wan, Q., Pan, B. (2018). A single subcutaneous administration of a sustained-release ivermectin suspension eliminates Psoroptes cuniculi infection in a rabbit farm. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. Vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 2000–2004. Available at:

31. Dunstand-Guzmán, E., Peña-Chora, G., Hallal-Calleros, C., Pérez-Martínez, M., Hernández-Velazquez, V. M., Morales-Montor, J., Flores-Pérez, F. I. (2015). Acaricidal effect and histological damage induced by Bacillus thuringiensis protein extracts on the mite Psoroptes cuniculi. Parasites & Vectors. Vol. 8, pp. 285–293. Available at: s13071-015-0890-6

32. Shang, X., Wang, Y., Zhou, X., Guo, X., Dong, S., Wang, D., Zhang, J., Pan, H., Zhang, Y., Miao, X. (2016). Acaricidal activity of oregano oil and its major component, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo. Veterinary Parasitology. Vol. 226, pp. 93–96. Available at:

PDF icon feshenko_1_2019.pdf6.88 MB