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Comprehensive treatment of foot rot in cattle

In today's dairy cattle’s hooves disease is one of the main problems of the milk industry as they have a significant spread. Globally, digital lesions of cows range from 10 to 30 %, with an average rejection about 27% of affected animals, and economic losses ranged from 90 to 100 € per sicked cow. This indicates a failure and inadequacy of health care activities due to the presence of a number of etiological factors, which often simply cannot be eliminated.

The purpose was to develop and test a comprehensive treatment of foot rot lesions in cattle.

Studies were conducted on a bull weighing 250–350 kg suffering by foot necrobacteriosis (n=40). Sick animals were divided on a three experimental and one control group. Animals of the first experimental group have treated with antibiotic Ceftioklin (1 ml per 50 kg subcutaneously, one time a day, 3 days in a row) and immunomodulating drug Avestym (0,3 ml per kg subcutaneously, 1 time a day, three times). Animals of the second experimental group have received only antibiotic Ceftioklin and third animals group – the immunomodulatory drug Avestym in the above mentioned doses. A fourth experimental group consisted of control animals treated with only topical (ointment Levomekol).

The study has found that clinical features changing most rapidly in the animals of first and second groups. The full recovery term was reduced in 1,5 times (p<0.001) compared with controls. That animal hasn’t shown any relapses after treatment. However, in the third group (Avestym) there was epithelization a bit slower, but had significant differences (p<0,05).

That bull had recovered due in 11 days, while control – 13,2±0,58. Further, in some calves of the control group was recorded recurrent disease.

Necrobacteriosis influences on a blood cell. It decreased the hemoglobin in 1,1 times (p<0,05) and increased white blood cell count in 1,3 times (p<0,01) compared with clinically healthy animals. The changes were significant in the first and second experimental groups after treatment. Thus, red blood cells in the first group increased to 6,58±0,27 T/l, p<0,05, in the second group – up to 6,48±0,24 T/l, p<0,05; hemoglobin – to 124,3±2,47, p<0,01 and 135,4±4,82 g/l, p<0.001, respectively, compared with sick patients. At the same time, the highest content of hemoglobin occurred in the second experimental group, which was higher at 1,1 times (p<0,05) than that of the control – 118,7±3,09 g/l. Such action caused by the bactericidal effect of antibiotics on microorganisms. It decreased resorption of toxins in blood, including hemolysin. On the other hand the antibacterial effect weakened infectious- inflammatory process that reduced the persistence of inflammatory mediators.

A white blood cells significantly reduced after treatment in animals of first group – 8,04±0,66 thousand/l (p<,.05).

The increasing tendency of white blood cells and platelets in animals received only Avestym (III experimental group). Therefore, Avestym using could be enhanced the immune capacity through moderate activation of the cellular components because these cells are the key elements of inflammation and immunity.

This also indicated parameters of the immune status of animals – circulating immune complex (CIC), especially in bull treated with Avestym. In particular, the lower amount of high molecular weight CIC found in the first group – 114,8±15,36 (Avestym & Ceftioklin) and third group – 124,0±18,13 (Avestym). Nevertheless, the small circulating immune complexes were more important. It number decreased to 1,1 times (p<0,05) in Avestym treated animals compared with control – 413,9±40,5, while the group showed it increasing. In addition, its number increased at 1,3 times (p<0,05) in the second experimental group. Reducing the number of circulating immune complexes influenced by Avestym is evidence of the positive (stimulatory) effect on the cellular immune system. Since it is known, the CIC elimination is provided by a system of mononuclear macrophages.

In the study of endogenous intoxication found that medical schemes, which included an antibiotic predetermined slight increase of the average molecular weight of the animals first – 0,14±0,015 (p<0,001) and the second group – 0,11±0,006 (p<0,001) compared with patients before treatment. This may suggest a strengthening of proteolysis and excretion of the pathogen of animals.

Therefore, complex treatment scheme using Ceftioclin and Avestym and a combination of local treatment provides causal, pathogenetic and therapeutic immunomodulating effect that speeds the healing of animals by 1,5 times without recurrence. Thus, systemic antibiotic therapy with Ceftioklin reduces infectious and toxic effects on the body and promotes rapid recovery of blood parameters. Along the other side Avestym exhibits an immunomodulatory effect, which is to strengthen the immune capacity through activation cellular components of the immune system.

Key words: foot rot, fusobacteriosis, cattle, Ceftioklin, Avestym.

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