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Epizootological features of cattle leptospirosis in the Vinnitsa region of Ukraine
Leptospirosis is a common worldwide zoonotic infection, is an important livestock problem throughout Ukraine. The peculiarities of leptospirosis are the presence of more than 250 serological groups of the pathogen, which significantly influences the choice of strategy for prevention and control of this disease.
The article presents data on the epizootic situation, the epizootological features of leptospirosis and the etiological structure of leptospiras in cattle in Vinnitsa region (1994-2015) and, in particular, in the farms of the Khmelnitsky district (2006-2012). The epizootic situation with leptospirosis of cattle in Vinnitsa region and the farms of Khmelnytsky district is characterized by certain fluctuations in the number of infections points and sick animals, with relative stability. Tottaly 247 cattle farms infections of leptospirosis were identified in the region during 21 years.
The materials for the research were the data of veterinary records and reports of farms and state veterinary medicine establishments of Vinnitsa region, the results of laboratory tests of blood serum from cattle from suspicious farms, the results of the analysis of health and preventive measures in suspicious farms.
The main leptospira serogroups that affect cattle in Vinnytsa region and directly in the Khmelnitsky region were Hebdomadis, Sejroe, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, registered from 43 to 86.3% of mixed reactions.
In Khmelnytsky district in 2006-2012, 7 infected farms were registered, 739 animals got sick. It was established that the epizootic situation in the farms depended on the observance of preventive and sanitary measures and the timely introduction of recovery plans. It has been proved that the integrated use of veterinary, sanitary and economic measures is an effective means of eliminating and preventing cattle leptospirosis in livestock farms. The complex of measures should include timely serological analisis of cattle on leptospirosis, adherence to quarantine during importation of animals to the herd, sanitary and preventive measures of exploitation of animals, vaccination of cattle against leptospirosis, taking into account the etiological structure of the disease.
Key words: leptospira, leptospirosis, cattle, microscopic agglutination test (MAT), leptospira serological groups, epizootic situation.
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