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Indicators of erythrocytopoesis in dogs of different climatic zones of Ukraine
The unique mechanism that plays a leading role in providing tissue respiration and stable metabolism is the erythrocytopotopesis system. It is evaluated most often by indicators of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, magnitudes of hematocrit, indices of "red" blood (MCH, MCV, CP).
The most studied state of erythrocytopoesis in cattle, horses, pigs. In pet animals, in particular dogs, in literary sources, the physiological values of the abovementioned indices of erythrocytopoesis are also described, but they do not reflect changes, depending on the climatic zone, age, physiological state. Therefore, the study of erythrocytopoesis in dogs of different climatic zones of Ukraine is a topical issue that may be due to changes in its markers.
The condition of erythrocytopoiesis was studied in dogs of official breeds of of the Steppe and Forest-steppe climatic zones.
Dogs of each climatic zone (mostly German Shepherds and Labradors) were divided into 3 groups (the first animals
7–12 months, the second – 2–4 years, and the third – animals older than 5 years old).
In addition to examining the clinical status of the blood, the dogs were determined: the total number of erythrocytes, their population composition, acid resistance of erythrocytes, hemoglobin content, hematocrit size, mathematical expressions of the "red" blood markers – MCH, MCV; in the blood serum, the concentration of the ferrum, the total and unsaturated ferrum binding capacity of the blood serum (SFZZ and NFZH), the content of transferrin and its saturation with the ferrum.
It was established that the total number of erythrocytes in dogs of the three groups did not differ from the physiological limits on average. However, in the part of dogs (second group) of the forest-steppe zone, the number of erythrocytes was higher than the maximum norm (8.0 T/l).
More significant changes were found in the study of the population composition of red blood cells. In particular, the number of "old" erythrocytes in dogs, regardless of age, of the Steppe zone was lower than that of the forest-steppe animals. The number of "mature" forms of erythrocytes in dogs of all three groups of the Steppe zone was on average identical, whereas in animals from the forest-steppe zone with age the part of "mature" erythrocytes tended to decrease. In the case of dogs older than 5 years of the Forest-Steppe Zone, the population of "mature" erythrocytes was 5,8 % less than that of the Steppe zone. The number of "young" erythrocytes in dogs of both zones was at the same level. The analysis of the graphs of acid hemolysis of erythrocytes shows that the processes of aging of erythrocytes are more intensively carried out in dogs of the Forest-steppe zone.
Another indicator of erythrocytopopesis – hemoglobin in all dogs from the Steppe and Forest-Steppe zone was on average the same. As for the indices of "red" blood, we have found significant differences. In particular, the MCH in dogs
2–4 years old in the Steppe zone was higher by 15,8 % than in the animals of the forest-steppe zone, indicating a higher saturation of erythrocytes with hemoglobin in high temperature conditions. Accordingly, the larger dogs in the Steppe zone were the magnitudes of the MCV Co-factor.
However, it is impossible to assess the state of erythrocytopopesis without the markers of the ferrum-transferin complex, the head of which is the content of the ferrum. Its contents on average did not differ in dogs of both climatic zones. However, in a large proportion of the dogs of the Steppe zone (42,9 %) found hyposidermia, and in 14,3 % – hypersideremia. The large limits of the trace element, obviously, are a physiological phenomenon, which is aimed at stabilizing erythrocytopopse.
Since the exchange of the fermium is associated with protein transferrin, the determination of the content of the total and unsaturated serum ferromagnetic capacity (PFZH, NFZH), transferrin, and the saturation coefficient of the ferrum is decisive in the diagnosis of erythrocytopоpesis pathology. The ZFZZ (indicating the ferrum associated with transferrin for activating the synthesis function of the "red" bone marrow) in dogs of the two climatic zones the average was in the same level: to the age of the year – 76,8 ± 4,62 and 76,5 ± 3,04 μmol/l of the Steppe Zone and the Forest-Steppe respectively; 2–4 years old – 71,0 ± 4,01 and 70,3 ± 3,58 and older than 5 years of age – 69,1 ± 5,80 and 75,4 ± 4,88 μmol/l.
The level of unsaturated serum ferrit binding capacity (NFZZ), which indicates the reserve reserves of the ferrum, on average was: in the first group – 49,4 ± 6,70 and 48,4 ± 3,07 μmol/l – the third one – 47,4 ± 3,85 and 45,2 ± 6,48 μmol/l.
It is difficult to estimate the metabolism of the ferrum without the determination of the content of transferrin in the blood serum and its saturation with the ferrum.
The content of transferrin on average was in dogs of the first group (Steppe and Forest-Steppe) – 3,4 ± 0,21 and 3,4 ± 0,06 g/l; the second one is 3,2 ± 0,18 and 3,1 ± 0,18 and the third group is 3,1 ± 0,26 and 3,4 ± 0,22 g/l.
However, the saturation of transferrin by ferrum in dogs of both climatic was somewhat different. This coefficient in dogs of the first year of life of the two climatic zones did not differ substantially and averaged 36,3 ± 9,18 and 36,4 ± 3,81 %, respectively. In older dogs we have a tendency to increase the saturation of transferrin by ferrum in the dogs of the forest-steppe zone. That is, in dogs of the Forest-Steppe climatic zone, the transferrin receptor device is more suited to the transport of the ferrum into the erythrocyte index of bone marrow for the synthesis of the hemoglobin molecule.
Thus, in the dogs of the Steppe and Forest-Steppe climatic zones, the number of erythrocyte, regardless of age, does not change significantly.
In dogs of the Forest-Steppe zone, there are more populations of "old" red blood cells, while "mature", especially after age 5, is less.
Analyzing the graphs of erythrograms, especially older than 5 years of age, it was found that the dogs in the forest-steppe zone complete the hemolysis of red blood cells earlier than in the animals of the Steppe zone. That is, the aging process of erythrocytes in them occurred faster.
The values of MCH and MCV in dogs since the age of 2 are greater in the Steppe zone.
The value of the fermium, ZPHZ, NFZZ and the content of transferrin in blood serum of the Steppe and Forest-Steppe zones is not significantly different, however, the saturation of transferrin by the ferrum is more in the dogs of the forest-steppe climatic zone.
Key words: dogs, erythrocytopoiesis, blood, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCH, MCV, OFSS, NFSS, transferrin, ferum.
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