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Physicochemical and microbiological indicators of mammary gland secretion of cows with different number of somatic cells

The main product is milk production, which is a complex biological fluid that is formed in the mammary gland of female 
mammals and has a high nutritional value, immunological and bactericidal properties. Milk is indispensable food for new-
borns full of animals and an important food of all ages. That is why one of the most important tasks of dairy cattle, regardless 
of ownership, is the increase in milk production, and most importantly - improve its quality.  
Quality milk can only be obtained from healthy cows, however, that prevent various diseases and especially mastitis. 
According to many authors of the disease cows mastitis covers from 21 to 70% of the herd, and 8–16% of cows suffering two 
or more times during lactation. The greatest degree of damage cows mastitis occurs in autumn-winter and spring seasons. 
Many authors have noted a direct relationship between the presence of pathogenic bacteria and the number of somatic cells in 
cow mammary gland secretions, which characterize the state of breast cancer. Of particular importance is the question for the 
diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cows. 
The aim of the changes was to determine the physical, chemical and microbiological parameters secretion of mammary 
gland of cows for subclinical mastitis. 
Research carried out on Simmental cows belonging to Agricultural Limited Liability ˮMyroslavel-Agro ", which is lo-
cated on the territory of the village Myroslavl Zhytomyr region.

Diagnosis of  mastitis conducted by direct counting of somatic cells in milk analyzer in "Ekomilk Scanˮ. Laboratory 
method, according to current standards, determine the physical, chemical, health indicators of the quality of milk: the mass 
fraction of fat, protein, lactose and skimmed milk residue, density, and KMAFAnM, BKHP. 
The results of our research the number of somatic cells in milk cows research (48 cows) in significant ranged between 90 
to 1500 thousand/cm
. According to standard 3662 – 97 (as amended) in milk class "extra" and "higher" somatic cell content 
should not exceed 400 thousand/cm
, the "first" – 600 thousand/cm
. In Finland in the milk of the highest quality E1 number 
of somatic cells should not exceed 250 thousand/Cm
, Norway and England – 150 thousand/cm
, of Denmark – 200 thou-
, Austria – 280 thousand/cm
, in most countries EU – 300–400 thousand/cm

Referring to international standards, cows were divided into five groups, the number of somatic cells in the sample me-
dium raw whole milk.  
The first group of cows classified clinically-healthy cows, the number of somatic cells in milk which is within the 90 
;  –  the  second  group  of  cows  –  milk  in  which  the  number  of  somatic  cells  in  averaged  185,5±16,25  thou-
; – the third group of animals – the value of somatic cells did not exceed 480,0±47,89 thousand/cm
; – in the fourth 
group of cows level of somatic cells ranges from 700 to 805 thousand/cm

The fifth group of animals with the increased number of somatic cells – 1489,3±8,72 thousand/cm
, that is obviously 
sick cows with subclinical mastitis. It is well known that in the development of inflammation of the udder disturbed synthesis 
of the main components of  milk. Thus, the mass fraction of fat  in the milk of cows  for subclinical  mastitis (fifth group) 
ranged from 2,58 to 5,05% in the average value of the group 3,73±0,5 %, which is 0,8 times less than in the milk of healthy 
cows (the first group). Fat cows second, third and fourth groups did not differ significantly and averaged 4,23±2,8; 4,1±0,5 
and 4,16±0,54 %, respectively. Consequently, the development of subclinical mastitis milk  fat synthesis is disturbed. For 
mastitis changing the composition and properties of milk – reduced the number of casein, whey protein content increases, 
chlorine, sodium and conductivity, acidity decreases and density. Mass fraction of protein in the milk of fifth group cows did 
not differ significantly from the values of healthy and relatively healthy cows. However, an important component of milk is 
not only the mass fraction of total protein, but also its components: casein and whey protein, which depends on the composi-
tion of rennet handling and output of the finished product. According to the literature, for subclinical mastitis decrease casein, 
given the growing number of serum proteins, albumin and globulins. It is through these mass fraction of total protein in the 
milk of cows for subclinical mastitis significantly changes. For mastitis in cow decreases the amount of lactose, in milk re-
sulting in a decrease in osmotic pressure. The permeability of blood vessels affected breast tissue is increased due to in-
creased diffusion in the milk of penetrating serum albumin and globulins, as their number increases in abnormal milk. The 
results of our research mass fraction of lactose in the milk of experimental cows for subclinical mastitis is 4,56±0,05%, which 
is significantly less than in clinically healthy cows – 4,65±0,07%. Synthesis of lactose (as converting glucose into galactose 
and glucose and galactose condensation) completely occurs in the Golgi apparatus. Lactose molecule goes through the mem-
brane into the cavity unit cell through the cell membrane and enters the cavity of the alveoli. Given the presence of inflamma-
tion in the udder cavity, the synthesis of glucose is broken. The most valuable component of milk is dry stuff, which is based 
on milk fat, protein, lactose, minerals, vitamins, enzymes, hormones, pigments. According to research the development of 
breast inflammation characterized by a decrease in the concentration of dry matter in cows of fifth group to 0,98 times com-
pared with clinically healthy cows. The density of milk cows depends on the density of milk constituents, with proteins, car-
bohydrates and salt increases the density, and reduces its fat. The density of milk cows subclinical mastitis was lower than the 
clinically healthy cows milk, so milk cows in the first group density of milk was 1027,0±0,54 kg/cm
, which is 0,95 less than 
in clinically healthy cows (1028,5±0,34 kg/cm
). However, these values meet the requirements of the standard. The density 
of the second group of cows was the highest and amounted to 1028,7±0,6 kg/cm
 and fluctuations in the values of 1026,0 to 
1031,9 kg/cm
. Bacteriological study of milk can be considered final or final stage of diagnosis of mastitis, based on the fact 
that so far there is no consensus about the etiological importance of microorganisms in the development of inflammatory 
breast cancer in animals. Most domestic scholars and practitioners traditionally considered mastitis is not a contagious dis-
ease caused by exposure to mechanical, thermal, chemical and other environmental factors with subsequent superimposition 
of biological factors or microorganisms. This implies that each type of mastitis, clinically expressed or subclinical, accompa-
nied by infections involving pathogens allocation which is required to establish the underlying cause of disease and choice of 
treatment and prevention. The most important microbiological parameters are common bacterial contamination, the presence 
of E. coli bacteria. In the study MAFAnM in cow milk was found that the number of microorganisms correlated with the 
number of somatic cells in milk. So by increasing the somatic cell count to 740 thousand/cm
, the total number of microor-
ganisms increased from 375 000 CFU/cm
 to 390 000 CFU/cm
. In the milk obtained from healthy cows total number of 
microorganisms ranging from 153 000 CFU/cm
 to 160 000 CFU/cm
. In addition, the definition BGKP conducted in the 
milk of healthy cows and subclinical mastitis. Research proved that the titer BGKP freshly drawn milk precast milk > 1,0 is 
indicative sanitation its receipt in which milk microbial count does not exceed 6x104 CFU/cm
. To identify bacteria of Esch-
erichia and Keslera took the environment, the essence of the method lies in the ability of E. coli bacteria ferment the lactose 
in the environment to form acid and gas. The results of our research in three samples of milk obtained from cows subclinical 
mastitis observed slight turbidity and gas was discovered in a dilution of 1.0. In cultivation 0.1 turbidity and gas were found.  
With tubes determined where gassing took on Endo medium in a petri dish. Escherichia coli characteristic gives rise to a 
brilliant red colonies with a  metallic sheen. Therefore, the results obtained give grounds to assert that mastitis is  formed 
mainly under the influence of microbial factor: bacteria of E. coli.  
Infection in the breast can enter in three ways: hematogenous, lymphogenous and halaktohennym. The latter path - the penetra-
tion of microflora through teat channel, is fundamental. Thus, the most important points of bacterial contamination of teats on top of 
infection include them in the process of milking cups via rubber milking equipment. And in the summer there is a significant risk 
that mechanical adding microorganisms like flies patients from other animals and objects from the environment. 
Key words: somatic cell mass fraction of fat, lactose, dry matter, density, KMAFAnM, BKHKP. 

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