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Toxigen properties of Fusarium and Aspergillus micromitsets

Nowadays, in the scientific literature and the World Wide Web, there is a significant amount of materials for the investigation of cases of mycotoxin poisoning or their discovery in grain feeds and food products. Thus, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Department, FAO, at the beginning of the 21st century, 25% of the grain crop was contaminated with mycotoxins, reports of contamination of even 80% of the world's grain crop were reported. Today more than 400 species of mycotoxins are known. The genera of molds that produce mycotoxins are related: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Claviceps, Neotyphodium, Myrothecium, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma, Trichothecium.

Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in mycotoxin contamination in Ukraine and in other countries where major crops are produced. All this takes the commodity grain not only from the category of food, but also makes it unfit for use on the feed. Cereal crops affect about 20 types of fusarium fungi, but the main attention due to the risk of contaminated grains by mycotoxins is given to Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, F. sporotrichioides, F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. sambucinum.

They differ from each other for their cultural properties, morphological features of macro- and microconidia, in the presence or absence of chlamydospores.

Of the 39 strains of fungi, Fusarium – twelve strains producing T-2 toxin among them – 8 F. sporotrichiella var. Poae, 3 F. sporotrichiella var. Tricinctum and 1 Fusarium spp., The fifteen strains formed – indeterminate trichothecene mycotoxins and no strain produced moniliformine. Another fifteen fungi strains produced Trichothecene mycotoxins, not defined by us, among them F. oxysporum var. Orthoceras – 4 strains, F. moniliforme var. Lactis – 3, F. sporotriciella var. Tricinctum – 4,
F. graminearum – 2 and F. culmorum – 1.

Analyzing the results obtained, it can be noted that T-2 toxin producers were identified in Kyiv – (7), Vinnytsa – (2), Transcarpathian – (1), Odessa – (1) regions and 1 strain producer was isolated from wheat grain from Germany Zearalenon was synthesized by strains isolated in the Kyiv and Transcarpathian regions, and producers of fumonisin B1 were found in the Kyiv and Odessa region. Trichothecene mycotoxins not identified were synthesized from strains from Vinnitsa, Chernigov, Transcarpathian, Kharkiv, Kyiv, Odessa regions and from Germany.

The conducted studies of aflatoxin producers in 22 fungi were not detected by Aspergillus flavus, 8 strains of fungus Aspergillus flavus produced coevine acid, 20 strains – aspergillum and only one – penicillic acid. Regarding distribution in region, the producers of coevinic acid were allocated in Odessa, Vinnytsia, Kirovograd, Chernihiv and Kyiv regions. Producers of aspergillic acid were isolated from Odesa, Vinnitsa, Kyiv, Chernihiv, Kirovograd, Transcarpathian and Mykolayiv regions, and only one producer of penicillin was isolated in the Chernigiv region.

Conclusions. Thus, the mycological researches have established a set of micromycetes that contaminate wheat grain from different physical and geographical regions. The difference in the contamination of grain with the fungi of the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium is detected, depending on the region of its cultivation. Mycotoxicological studies in the grains revealed the producers of T-2, F-2 toxins, DON, moniliformin, fumonisin B1, coev, aspergil, and penicillic acids. This information can be used to objectively assess the quality of grain products. In order to control the safety of grown crops, it is necessary to continuously monitor their contamination with mycotoxins and toxigenic micromycetes.

Key words: deoxynivalenol, DON, Fusarium, toxin, F-2, T-2, TTMT, fumonisin B1, kioic acid, aspergilic acid, penicilic acid.

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