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Treatment of horses with asthma syndrome
Respiratory diseases in horses are one of the main reasons for their exclusion from work, sports or recreational use. Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), or asthma of horses – This is a disease of older horses characterized by neutrophilic inflammation of the mucous membrane, hyperactivity of the respiratory tract, hypersecretion of mucus and bronchospasm.
The prevalence of broncho-pulmonary pathology, in particular asthma in horses, and low efficiency of therapeutic measures are of interest to veterinary specialists in search of new available pharmaco-correction.
The purpose of the work was to study the effectiveness of the developed integrated treatment scheme for horses for asthma syndrome.
Materials for research were sports and workhorses of the Ukrainian warmblood, Hanoverian, Westphalian, English Thoroughbred, Tori breeds and non-breeding animals. To complete the task, 13 horses with asthma were selected.
It was established that the complex treatment of patients with asthma horses showed a positive effect, even after a short course of therapy, since the clinical recovery was manifested in reducing the frequency of cough attacks, lack of dyspnea and nasal discharge, reduction of the amount of tracheal mucus (0/1°) and neutrophils in the BAL's washings, increasing the efficiency of horses.
In horses after treatment, the number of red blood cells (p 0.05) is reduced, the hemoglobin concentration (p<0.05) and the hematocrit (p<0.05) decrease, which is associated with the elimination of the causes of hypoxia, the indices of red blood are normal, as the decrease in the average volume of erythrocytes (p<0.01) and the average content of hemoglobin in erythrocyte (p<0,001) is established in comparison with the indicators of diseased animals.
Conducted treatment of asthma in horses contributed to the elimination of inflammatory process in the respiratory tract, as the amount of leukocytes (p<0.01), strain-cells (p<0.01) and segmentally nuclear (p<0.01) neutrophils, as well as monocytes (p<0.05), is decreased in blood. At the same time, an increase in the number of lymphocytes in the blood of horses after treatment (p<0.001) is associated with the restoration of protective mechanisms of the body of horses.
The treatment contributed to the normalization of the parameters of thrombopoiesis, in particular in the blood of horses the number of thrombocytes was likely to increase (p<0.05) and the amount of thrombocyte (p<0.05), which indicates the prevention of the development of hyperdestructive thrombocytopenia and hyperplasia of the epithelium of the respiratory tract, proliferation of smooth muscle cells and development of bronchoconstriction.
Treatment of patients with asthma of horses contributed to a reduction in the blood contents of the total protein (p<0.05), which is the result of reducing the inflammatory reaction in the respiratory tract. At the same time, the content of albumins and the concentration of total bilirubin in blood of horses did not change after treatment, therefore the developed scheme of treatment did not have a negative effect on the protein synthesizing pigmentary function of the liver. The treatment normalized carbohydrate metabolism, as the blood glucose increased significantly (p<0.05).
The developed treatment scheme is effective, and the drugs used do not cause increased permeability of cell membranes, where the AST and ALT are localized, since the activity of blood serum enzymes has not undergone any changes, and the tendency to decrease the activity of CK-MB, LDH and LDH-1 indicates the stabilization of membranes of cardiomyocytes.
The treatment improved the diffusion of gases through the alveolar-capillary membrane, contributes to the reduction of hypoxia and the manifestation of respiratory dysfunction, since probably in the blood (p<0,01) the hydrogen indicator decline (pH), there is a tendency to increase the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2).
The use of corticosteroids (dexamethasone, fluticasone) reduces pulmonary neutrophilia, improves the function of the lungs and suppresses the hyperactivity of the respiratory tract. The use of ß2-agonists, or ß2-adrenomimetics, provides rapid bronchodilation, increases mucociliary clearance, and prevents bronchial spasm induced by allergens. Mucolytic drugs provide dissolution of mucus and accelerate the secretion of the respiratory tract, which promotes the rapid restoration of lung function.
The Roncoleukinum drug leads to a decrease in the degree of obstruction of the respiratory tract, the number of neutrophils in the liquid BAL and a decrease in bronchial hyperactivity, inhibits the migration of neutrophils into the inflammation zone. In addition to the pulmono protective properties of the drug, prevention of the development of hyper destructive thrombocytopenia of the airway epithelium, the proliferation of smooth muscle cells and the development of bronchoconstriction should be noted.
Because of the progressive nature of asthma, long-term, or re-therapy requires symptomatic treatment, especially during asthmatic attacks.
When diagnosed in a timely manner, when degenerative changes have not developed in the lungs and when the conditions of detention are changed and the correct treatment scheme is used, the animal may be used for many years.
Key words: asthma syndrome, horses, corticosteroids, bronchodilators, inhalation drug administration, symptomatic therapy.
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