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Analysis of feeding ration of dry pregnant period cows of Ukrainian black and white dairy breed according to results of clinical examination
The article presents an analysis of ration feeding of dry periods cows of Ukrainian black and white dairy breed according to the results of clinical examination. It was performed the analysis of the diets of cows of early (60-21 days) and late (20-0 days before calving) dry period. It was established that the farm carried differentiated feeding cows of various technological groups, including early pregnant ones.
Analyzing the structure of cow’s rations in technological groups of early and late period of pregnancy at the rate of surplus energy it was found roughage excess, whose share was 31.1 and 25.9%. It was established that the share of suauilent fodder for cows early dry period of pregnancy (44.7%) was higher than normal, while in animals of later period of pregnancy (39.7%) was lower. The proportion of concentrated feed was within the upper limit of normal feeding cows in two technological groups. It was found the lack of metabolizable energy (ME) in the diet of cows of early pregnant period (-16.8 MJ) and its optimal value in cows of late period. It was also founded an excess of dry matter (DM) in the diet of cows of early and late period of pregnancy, respectively, 1.8 (12.7%) and 2.9 kg (20.4%) compared to the needs. So, it was found a significant reduction in the concentration of ME in 1 kg of DM, respectively, 2.28 (-21.1%) and 2.13 MJ (-19.2%) and increasing concentrations of DM in 1 MJ of ME (tab. 4), respectively, 0.03 (+33.3%) and 0.02 kg (+22.2%).
The content of crude protein in the diets of the two groups of cows was below its need and its lack was 7 744.8 (-32.6%) in cows of early dry period of pregnancy, and 519, 8 g (-22, 7%) – of late period. The lack of crude protein per 1 kg of DM was respectively 64.6 g (-40.1%) and 65.9 g (-39.0%). A similar provision of digestible protein was for cows of early period of pregnancy. Its content in the diets of cows in early and late period of pregnancy was, therefore, only 952.5 and 1140.6 grams, which provided 64.1 and 76.8% of the demand. Accordingly, the concentration of digestible protein in 1 kg of DM in the diet was only 59.6 and 66.6 g which was below normal at 43.2 and 39.5%.
It was established the excess of DM and it was the result of excessive amounts of crude fiber in diets of cows of both early and late period of pregnancy, respectively, on 1784.8 (59.9%) and 1709.3 (+ 57.4%), increased its content in terms 1 kg of DM, respectively, on 88.1 g (42.0%) and 74 g (+ 37.0%) and in terms of 1 MJ of ME, respectively, 15.5 g (+ 79.5%) and 12.6 g (+ 70.0%).
In addition, we found a significant lack of sugar in the diets of cows in early and late period of pregnancy, the security was, respectively, 21.9 and only 26.6% of the demand. In terms of 1 kg of DM sugar content in the feed ration of cows was 19.4, 20.9% of normal, and in terms of MJ of ME – 24.7 and 26.3% respectively.
It was established fairly low sugar-protein ratio – under 0.342: 1 and 0.346: 1 at a rate of 0,90-0,95: 1. Despite the higher starch content in the diet, the ratio of sugar + starch-protein diets of cows in early period of pregnancy was still low
(1,818: 1), but the cows of late period (2.205: 1) – was in the normal range (2,0-2 2: 1).
The content of crude fat in the diet of cows early dry and late period of pregnancy was, respectively, 346.4 and 485.7 g, 15.3 and 5.7% below the requirement.
It was established that cows feed ration provides early and late period of pregnancy with calcium, respectively, 82.5 and 83.1% of the demand. The availability of ration feeding cows in early and late period of pregnancy with phosphorus was respectively 50.1 and only 56.7% of the demand. High calcium-phosphorus ratio found in the feed ration of cows as early (2.854: 1) and late (2.520: 1) period of pregnancy, compared with the norm (1,65-1,7: 1).
It was found that the diets of cows in early dry and late period of pregnancy were provided above needs with magnesium, respectively, 219.2 and 227.9%. Therefore, it was noted the increased of concentration of 1 kg of DM and in terms of 1 MJ of ME as early period in the diet of cows (85.9% and + 143.8) and late period of pregnancy (79.2% and + 125.0) in accordance.
The content of copper in diets of cows in early dry and late period of pregnancy provided cows, respectively, only on 62.5 and 69.3% of the demand. Therefore, its concentration was, respectively, lower than normal, both in terms of 1 kg of DM 44.4 and 45.8%, and in terms of 1 MJ of ME of 29.5 and 33% of normal.
Provision of zinc in diets of cows in early and late period of pregnancy was, respectively, 66.3 and 73.1%. The concentration of trace elements in terms of 1 kg of DM and 1 MJ of ME was accordingly lower compared to the norm of 41.7 and 25.4% in the diets of cow’s early period and 42.4 and 28.4% – of late period of pregnancy.
Availability of cobalt of cows in early and late periods of pregnancy was respectively 81.1 and 85.3% of the demand. However, the concentration of cobalt in 1 kg of DM was lower than normal, respectively, 28.4 and 31.4% (Table. 3), equivalent to 1 MJ of ME – respectively, 6.7 and 11.7%.
Availability of ration in feeding early pregnant cows with carotene was only two-thirds of need. The carotene concentration in cows during early and late lactation was 1 kg of DM diet reached only 58.8 and 52.2% of normal, and in terms of
1 MJ of ME – 74.3 and 64.5%.
Availability of early pregnant cows with vitamin D was only 9% of the demand. Vitamin D in 1 kg of DM was even lower – at 7- 8% of normal, and in terms of 1 MJ of ME – 8.8 – 10.2%.
So, on the basis of the analysis of diets it was found violations of protein, carbohydrate, lipid, macro, trace mineral and vitamin nutrition. The disadvantages of feeding of early pregnant cows were imperfect structure diets, excessive amounts of dry matter, fiber, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, iron and manganese, low energy content, crude and digestible protein easy digestible carbohydrates (sugar and starch), calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc cobalt, iodine, carotene and vitamin D.
Further studies will be used to establish the clinical status of the Ukrainian dry period cows of black and white dairy using classical and instrumental methods of diagnosis, the study of biochemical and hematological parameters of blood, milk and urine tests to monitor the health, performance and diagnostics of metabolic disorders.
Key words: dry period cows, clinical examination, analysis of feeding ration.
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