You are here

Efficiency of preparation of Ferolife at hypoplastic anemia of piglets and calves

The article presents the results of research of influence domestic preparation Ferolife on the performance of hematopoie-
sis in calves and pigs. The drug stimulates the synthesis of hemoglobin and red blood cells production, increases the amount 
of iron in the blood serum albumin does not inhibit the function of synthesizing hepatocytes. 
It is known that anemia is a pathological condition of the body resulting from a decrease in hemoglobin and number of 
erythrocytes, or one of them in the unit of blood volume, which causes the development of hypoxia and changes in the func-
tions of the blood. There are three kinds of  anemis according to its pathogenesis: posthemorrhagic, hemolytic  and hypo-
plastic. The last one is very common among young farm animals, especially one caused by alimentary deficiency. Analysis of 
recent research and publications  shows that the treatment of the disease is mainly based on the use of products of iron or 
cobalt by its easiest way – orally. However, this method is not always effective and so scientists have proposed wherein diva-
lent iron dextrin molecule. The best foreign and domestic drugs based on them is considered impozyl-200 imferon, miofer, 
ursoferon, ferodex, dextrofor 100, brovaferan, ferohlyukin-75. 
Given that dextrin preparations containing only iron assimilation which after injection is 60–70 %, and polyetiologic hy-
poplastic  anemia,  we  consider  the  possibility  to  apply  them  in  combination  with  other  trace  elements  and  vitamins.  It  is 
known that the easiest effective treatment of anemia in calves during the neonate period with ferodextrans, but this is not a 
physiological way of iron supply in the body of animals. Ferodextranes are used in large doses that are not always safe, be-
cause iron has prooxidative properties, can block cell mononuclear phagocytic system. Yet, to this day ferodextrans prepara-
tions are widely used in practice veterinary medicine. 
That is why the  main purpose of research was to examine the effectiveness of the new ferodextran drug Ferolife for 
treating calves and pigs with hypoplastic anemia (producer PP OLKAR – AgroZooVet Service (Ukraine)). 
Materials and methods of research. The study was conducted on 10 pigs with the control group of 5 piglets. As Ferolife 
was investigated for the first time, the drug used for comparison was Ferribion produced by Bioveta (Czech Republic). These 
drugs were administered intramuscularly in the thigh area, twice, at 3–4 days of life and after 7 days at a dose of 1,5 ml 
(150 mg of iron per injection). Blood samples were investigated in 7 days after the second injection. 

Calves aged 5–10 days were administered with Ferolife at a dose of 4,5 mL per injection (10–12 mg of iron per 1 kg of 
body weight). The injection was repeated in 7 days. The blood of calves was studied twice: before drug administration and in 
7 days after the second injection. 
Results and discussion. In the blood of 3–4-day-old piglets hemoglobin content was in the range of 75,6 to 94,8 g / L, the 
number of red blood cells – 4,3–4,9 T / L. The saturation of erythrocytes with hemoglobin was 16,4–22,0 pg, that is corre-
spondent with  normochromic anemia, with their capacity is considered as normo- and macrocytic (MCV – 58,3–65,1 mkm
Within 14–15 days hematopoiesis performance in pigs in the control group were characteristic to hypochromic anemia: he-
moglobin decreased by 21,6 % (p<0.05), saturation of red blood cells was 14,0–15,6 pg (14,8±0.45, p <0,05). Hematocrit 
value and the average volume of red blood cells had a strong trend (p<0,1) to incline. 
Low hemoglobin content in pigs was because of little iron in colostrum and milk of sows (pigs receiving daily 1 mg 7–
10 mg if necessary, and its lack of assimilation of fodder, as in the stomach of piglets to the 25–28-day age no free chloride 
acid). In addition, the life expectancy of red blood cells in the bloodstream of pigs is about 65 days, about half that in cattle, 
requiring increased intensity of erythropoiesis. 
After the experiment, the hemoglobin content in both experimental groups was within normal limits in all pigs. Its limits 
in the first group were within 104–138, the second – 99–139 g / l, and the average was 1.9 times greater than in control. Satu-
ration of hemoglobin rose to 19,7±0,57 pg in the first and 19,2±0,55 pg –in a control group, which contributed to more inten-
sive transport of oxygen to various organs and tissues and their proper functioning. In particular in pigs  there were increases 
in activity of proteolytic enzymes of the stomach and pancreas that improved digestion and increased growth rate. 
Since in  the research groups of piglets there were increases in the number of red blood cells, hematocrit value and then 
increases to 37,0±1,35 and 37,7±1,5 % in the first and second groups (11,6 and 12,3% respectively). The latter figure de-
pends not only on the number of red blood cells, but also on their average volume, which in piglets of both groups was al-
most identical and amounted to 58,7±1,26 and 58,9±0,57 mkm

Thus, the drug Ferolife used twice in  piglets 3–4- and 10–12-days of age at a dose of 1,5 ml (150 mg of iron per injec-
tion) is effective for the treatment and prevention of iron deficiency anemia and its effect is not inferior to the use of Ferribi-
on produced by Bioveta (Czech Republic). 
According to clinical studies in calves, in three of them were found changes characteristic to anemia, a decrease in he-
moglobin (74,5–84,0 g / l), olihocytemiya (erythrocytes 4,4–5,6 T / L). Normocytic and normochromic anemia  wit lLow 
hematocrit value. 
After    double  administration  of Ferolife  hemoglobin  increased  by  20,8%  (p  <0.001),  the  number  of  erythrocytes  in-
creased to 6,7±0,23 T / L (p<0,01). Hematocrit value growthed to 37,2±0,65 % (+8,6 %; p<0,001) due to increase in the 
number of red blood cells, as their average volume remained stable. 
The content of iron with the administration of Ferolife ranged from 52,6 to 83,9 mg / 100 ml (72,9±5,92), after treatment 
it increased by 23,5 % (90,0±1,80 mg / 100 ml, p<0,05), and the level of copper, by contrast, tended to decrease (p<0,05) and 
averaged 73,0±3,35 mg / 100 ml. Average figures of total protein, albumin and total calcium had no significant alteration in 
comparison with the starting data. 
Conclusions. 1. The two-week old piglets with intensive alimentary deficiency anemia is characterized by a decrease in 
hemoglobin and number of red blood cells. Anemia hemoglobin saturation is hypochromic erythrocytes. 
2. The two-time Ferolife injection to pigs of 3–4- and 10–12-days of age at a dose of 1,5 ml (150 mg of iron per injec-
tion) is effective for the treatment and prevention of iron deficiency anemia: hemoglobin and the number of red blood cells, 
hemoglobin saturation was significantly (p<0,001) higher than in the control group of pigs. 
3. The effect of Ferolife on erythropoiesis performance does not differ from imported preparation Ferribion.  
Keywords: iron, ferrodextranes, Ferolife, hypoplastic anemia, hemoglobin, red blood cells, pigs, calves. 

1.  Vnutrishni  hvoroby  tvaryn  /  [Levchenko  V.I., Vlizlo  V.V.,  Kondrahin  I.P.  ta  in.];  za  red.  V.I.  Levchenka.  –  Bila 
Cerkva, 2015. – Ch. 2. – 610 s. 
2.  Gipoplastychna  anemija  molodnjaku  [Elektronnyj  resurs]  /  Agrarnyj  sektor  Ukrai'ny,  2015.  –  Rezhym  dostupu: 
3. Anemija teljat rann'ogo viku / [Levchenko V., Sokoljuk V., Moskalenko V. ta in.] // Vet. medycyna Ukrai'ny. – 1997. 
– № 7. – S. 30–31. 
4.  A  study  of  the  anaemia  of  young  pigs  and  its  prevention  [Elektronnyj  resurs].  –  2013.  –  Rezhym  dostupu: 2/3/277.pdf 
5.  Sukmans'kyj  O.I.  Veterynarna  gematologija  /  O.I.  Sukmans'kyj,  S.I.  Ulyz'ko;  Za  red.  prof.  O.I.  Sukmans'kogo.  – 
Odesa, 2009. – 168 s. 
6.  Gipoplastychna  anemija  porosjat  [Elektronnyj  resurs].  –  2013.  –  Rezhym  dostupu:  http://
plastichna-anemiya-porosyat. html. 
7. Dr. Kalyan Sarma. Iron Deficiency  Anaemia or Piglet Anaemia [Elektronnyj resurs]. – 2015. – Rezhym dostupu: 
8. Elwyn R. Miller. Baby Pig Anemia / Elwyn R. Miller, Duane E. Ullrey [Elektronnyj resurs]. – 2015. – Rezhym do-
stupu: newfactsheets/04-01-07g.pdf. 
9. Ulyz'ko S.I. Porivnjal'na ocinka sposobiv profilaktyky alimentarnoi' anemii' porosjat [Elektronnyj resurs]. – 2012. – 
Rezhym dostupu: 2008_42_1/Ulyzko. 
10.  Anohin  B.M.  Sravnitel'naja  jeffektivnost'  lechebnyh  sredstv  pri  alimentarnoj  anemii  teljat  /  B.M.  Anohin  // 
Profilaktika i terapija boleznej s.-h. zhivotnyh: Sb. nauch. tr. – Voronezh, 1994. – S. 77–79. 
11. Zalizo v organizmi ljudyny i tvaryn (biohimichni, imunologichni ta ekologichni aspekty ) / [Antonjuk G.L., Sologub L.I., 
Snityns'kyj V.V., Babych N.O.]. – L'viv, 2006. – 310 s. 
12. Atamna H. Heme, iron and the mitochondrial decay of ageing / H. Atamna // Ageing Res. Rev. – 2004. – Vol. 3, N 3. 
– Р. 303–318. 
13. Atamna H. The role of heme and iron-sulfur clusters in mitochondrial biogenesis, maintenance and decay with age / 
H. Atamna, P.B. Walter, B.N. Ames // Arch. Biochem. Biophys. – 2002. – Vol. 397, N 2. – P. 345–353. 
14.  Alymentarnaja  anemyja  porosjat  [Elektronnyj  resurs].  –  2015.  –  Rezhym  dostupu:
15. Mel'nychenko O.M. Konstrujuvannja biologichno aktyvnyh metaloorganichnyh preparativ i i'h vykorystannja dlja 
profilaktyky  alimentarnyh  anemij  porosjat:  avtoref.  dys.  na  zdobuttja  nauk.  stupenja  kand.  vet.  nauk:  16.00.12  «Biote-
hnologija i veterynarni nauky» / O.M. Mel'nychenko. – Bila Cerkva, 1996. – 17 s. 

16. Alymentarnaja (zhelezodefycytnaja) anemyja porosjat (Anemia alimentaria) [Elektronnyj resurs]. – 2015. – Rezhym 
17. Cook J.D. Effect of ascorbic acid intake on nonheme-iron absorption from a complete diet / J.D. Cook, M.B. Reddy 
// Am. J. Clin. Nutr. – 2001. – Vol. 73. – P. 93–98. 
18. Erythorbic acid is a potent enhancer of nonheme-iron absorption / [Filder M.C., Davidsson L., Zeder C., Hurrell R.F.] // 
Am. J. Clin. Nutr. – 2004. – Vol. 79. – P. 99–102. 
19.  Kondrahyn  Y.  Dyagnostyka  y  terapyja  vnutrennyh  boleznej  zhyvotnыh  /  Y.  Kondrahyn,  V.  Levchenko.  –  M.: 
Akvaryum-Prynt, 2005. – 830 s. 
20. Boldt D.H. New perspectives on iron. An introduction / D.H. Boldt // Am. J. Sci. – 1999. – Vol. 318. – P. 207–212. 
21.  Metody  veterynarnoj  klynycheskoj  laboratornoj  dyagostyky:  spravochnyk  /  [Kondrahyn  Y.P.,  Arhypov  A.V., 
Levchenko V.Y. y dr.]; Pod red. prof. Y.P. Kondrahyna. – M.: KolosS, 2004. – 520 s. 
22.  Laboratorne  doslidzhennja  krovi  tvaryn  ta  interpretacija  jogo  rezul'tativ:  metod.  posibnyk  /  [Levchenko  V.I., 
Golovaha V.I., Sahnjuk V.V. ta in.], Za red. V.I. Levchenka i V.M. Bezuha. – Bila Cerkva, 2015. – 136 s. 
23. Tissue-specific expression of ferritin H regulates cellular iron homoeostasis in vivo / [Wilkinson J., Di X., Schonig K. 
et al.] // Biochem J. – 2006. – Vol. 395, N 3. – P. 501–507. 
24. Veterynarna klinichna biohimija / [Levchenko V.I., Vlizlo V.V., Kondrahin I.P. ta in.]; Za red. V.I. Levchenka i 
V.L. Galjasa. – Bila Cerkva, 2002. – 400 s. 
25. Chitambar C.R. Cellular iron metabolism: mitochondria in the spotlight // Blood. – 2005. – Vol. 105, N 5. – P. 1844–1845. 
26. Riggs A.F. A globin in every cell? / A.F. Riggs, T.A. Gorr // Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA. – 2006. – Vol. 103, N 8. – 
P. 2469–2470. 
27. Three globin lineages belonging to two structural classes in genomes from the three kingdoms of life / [Vinogradov S.N., 
Hoogewijs D., Bailly X. et al.] // PNAS. – 2005. – Vol. 102, N 32. – P. 11385–11389. 
28.  Blomberg  M.R.  Metal-bridging  mechanism  for  O-O  bond  cleavage  in  cytochrome  C  oxidase  /  [Blomberg  M.R., 
Siegbahn P.E., Wikstrom M.] // Inorg. Chem. – 2003. – Vol. 42. – P. 5231–5243.