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Influence of amaranth-corn silos on the dynamics of protein substances in the organism of dairy cows
Increasing the production of high-protein feeds is beneficial if in addition to traditional forage plants use non-traditional, but containing high-quality proteinaceous substances.
Experiments on silage of amaranth together with corn (in the ratio 1: 3) were carried out. The nutritional value and quality of silage, the content of essential amino acids in it have been studied. Also the influence of the fed silage on the dynamics of protein substances in the organism of milk cows has been studied.
The experimental part of the experiments was carried out on 20 milk cow of black and motley breed, with a body weight of 580-620 kg with a planned productivity of 5000 kg of milk in the conditions of farms.
In the first period (for a period of 30 days), all animals received a normal diet, including legume-cereal hay and concentrates, balanced for all basic nutrients and exchange energy. In the second period the animals were divided into 4 groups. Amaranth-corn silage was included in their diet by substitution of exchange energy in the amount: 10 kg in the first test group, 15 kg in the second test group and 20 kg in the third test group. The control group of cows continued to feed on the diet of the first period. The duration of the second feeding period was also 30 days.
The venous blood was taken from the animals for analysis at the end of each period
The results showed that amaranth is a promising fodder plant with a rich nutritional composition, especially an easily digestible protein. The same agrotechnical conditions for the cultivation of amaranth and maize, as well as their biological features, allow them to be used together for the preparation of silage.
The results of the joint conservation of amaranth with corn show that this silo does not significantly differ from the traditional silos (in our corn silage studies) with the use of corn and ordinary sowing grasses. However, in the amaranth corn silage, the content of raw and digestible protein is increased in comparison with corn, by 27% and 40% respectively.
Silage of amaranth with corn in a ratio of 1: 3 leads to a high-quality silage with a good. Amaranth protein has a high nutritional value, which is due to the optimal ratio of all amino acids, including irreplaceable and critical. This trend is also maintained in the silage of the amaranth obtained with mixing maize in a ratio of 1: 3.
The exchange energy of the investigated silage and green amaranth mass is 0.4 MJ and 0.3 MJ higher as compared to amaranth-corn silage and green mass from corn at 10 g compared with amaranth dry matter more in green corn mass. Thus this indicator is also higher in the amaranth-corn silage respectively. The content of raw fat in the green mass of amaranth is 2 g more than in green mass from corn. The content of non-toxic extractive substances, starch and sugar for 35 g, 3 g and 20 g more in the green mass of maize, respectively.
The green mass of amaranth exceeds the green mass of corn in the content of carotene by 10 mg, calcium by 3.9 g. and phosphorus by 1.1 g. Accordingly, amount of these substances in the amaranth-corn silage is more than in corn silage: carotene by 8 mg, calcium – on 2 g, phosphorus – by 0.4 g.
According the our studies, the mixed amaranth-corn silage exceeds the corn silage by 0.55% by the content of lactic acid, which increases its quality. It is important to note that the pH level of amaranth-corn silage in a ratio of 1: 3 varies between 3.9-4.2 units, and in quality refers to the first class.
Also, the green mass and silage were analyzed for the content of amino acids in them. The results of the studies showed that the green mass of amaranth and amaranth-corn silage exceed the maize green mass and corn silage by 50% or more in the content of arginine, leucine, isoleucine, histidine, phenylalanine, threonine, valine and methionine. The content of lysine (%) in the amaranth-corn silage is 1.9 ± 0.1 compared to corn silage – 0.2 ± 0.01.
Feeding dairy cows of silage from amaranth and maize (1: 3) in the amount of 10–20 kg per day leads to an increase in the amount of total proteins in the blood serum by 3.7–10.9%. That provides the simultaneous increase in the indices of the main protein fractions.
The content of total proteins in the blood serum of the experimental animals tended to increase: in the I group by 3.7%, in the II group by 5.9% and in the III test group by 10.9% compared with the control group. Similar changes were noted in terms of the number of gamma globulins: in the I group by 2.8%, in the second group by 7.9%, in the third group – by 9.9% compared to the animals in the control group. Among other globulin fractions, β-globulins tended to decrease by some 15%. Albumins did not undergo significant changes in content.
Inclusion of amaranth corn silage in the diet of animals positively affects the metabolic processes of nitrogenous compounds. As a result of which the organism does not have time to transform non-protein nitrogenous substances, that is, the transformation of amino acids into muscle and other tissue proteins. It is pertinent to recall that the importance of amino acids (mostly irreplaceable) is that besides participating in the synthesis of tissue proteins, they also perform other specific major functions in the body.
Feeding milk cows mixed silage from amaranth and corn does not violate the spectrum of the amino acid composition of blood serum. On the contrary, it enriches them with essential amino acids, in particular, lysine.
As part of the researches, we studied the influence of fodder on the milk productivity of experimental animals. The results showed that the inclusion of a mixed silage of amaranth and maize (1: 3) in an amount of 10-20 kg into the diet of dairy cows leads to an increase in milk yield. In this case, in comparison with the control group, the level of increase in milk productivity was: in the I experimental group by 7.5%, in the II trial group by 9.8% and in the III experimental group by 10.2%.
Thus, our conducted researches show the amaranth's value as a source of high-quality protein. That makes it possible to use it both as a green mass and in a silage form for feeding dairy cows.
Key words: amaranth, silage, proteins, essential amino acids, protein fractions, milk productivity.
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