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Hepatodystrophy of high-productive cows

The fat hepatodystrophy is a very frequent pathology of highly productive cows, it is registered at 50–90 % of animals. The disease is complicated by the affect of hart, kidneys, legs, endocrine system, by secondary osteodystrophy, which reduces the duration of valuable herd exploitation.

The reason of the primary hepatodystrophy is a disturbance of cows feeding especially during first 2-3 months of lactation: а) energy deficiency in ration and excess of protein; b) deficiency of methionine, choline and natural anti-oxidants in feeds; c) feeding by low quality, nasty (mouldy, rotten) feeds. The secondary hepatodystrophy is related to ketosis, obesity, chronic acidosis, abomasum displacement and other internal, surgical and gynaecological diseases which decrease fodders intake. Then, the lipomobilisation syndrome appears and induces an intense fat deposition into hepatocytes. The negative energetic balance develops, its duration and evidence depend on cows’ productivity.

For diagnostic of the hepatodystrophy caws’ productivity, structure and full value of rations, feeds quality, disease symptoms and results of laboratory analysis of blood serum are taken into account.

The treatment of caws with the hepatodystrophy should be complex, it foresees the respect of diet, the ration containing green fodders, hay, corn and barley offal, 1,5-2 kg of molasses. As for drugs, products restoring metabolism in hepatocytes, vitamins, hepatoproterctors, antioxidants, glucoplastic and bile-expelling products are used. For normalization of gluconeogenesis and reducing fats income into liver when breakdown of fat is intense, glucoplastic drugs, lipotropic products and hepatoprotectors are induced. The treatment duration of caws with a mild case of hepatodystrophy (7-12 % of fat against the weight of liver) should be 8 – 10 days, as for caws with a moderate case (until 25 % of fat) the treatment duration should be 10 – 25 days. As for severe cases of liver fatty degeneration that is usually accompanied by ketosis, hypotony of proventricula and chronic rumen acidosis the treatment is not efficient.

The prophylaxis of the hepatodystrophy is based on the complex approach to animal health control. One of its components is the organization of well-balances feeding by high quality feeds, it is the most important for heifers and caws of first calving during dry period and first 80 – 100 days after lactation. A special attention should be paid to the content of sugar and starch in rations and their ratio to digestible protein, as well as to optimal energy supply of heifers and caws.

The efficient mean for the prophylaxis of liver pathology and other diseases of highly productive caws such as ketosis, rumen acidosis, proventricula hypotony, secondary osteodystrophy and others is feeding according to phases. It consists of 5 – 6 periods: early and late dry periods (respectively 60-20 and 20-1 days before foreseen calving), after calving (2-3 weeks after calving), early lactation (till 80-110 days), medium and late lactation (the duration of every lactation is about 100 day). A special attention should be paid to so called « transitory period » (last three weeks before foreseen calving and first weeks after calving) and to period of early lactation. The rations at these periods should correspond to physiological condition, productivity and lactation period of highly productive caws. One of the efficient prophylaxis measures is the implementation of feeds mixture containing in equal parts roughage (hay, straw), succulent feeds (silage, haylage) and concentrated feeds (corn, barley, wheat, soybeans, sunflower cake etc.) with the part of dry matter up to 50% for feeding heifers and caws. Some farmers include green feeds into the ration during spring and summer period but their part is up to 15-20 %.

Key words: high-productive cows, hepatodystrophy, ketosis, metabolism, nutrition, aethiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, treatment, prophylaxis

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