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Monitoring of liver dysfunction in small animals in modern environmental conditions.
The general rule in the liver damage is the development of its insufficiency, which is characterized by a partial or complete violation of its basic functions. Insufficiency of the liver is a condition in which the functional activity of the liver does not ensure the maintenance of homeostasis. Changes in metabolism in the body of animals, reduction of nonspecific resistance of the organism, prolonged intoxication create prerequisites for the development of various diseases. In the conditions of large cities, there are rarely animals, in which the liver was not damaged in one way or another. This is also due to both unfavorable ecology and inadequate, and often excessive nutrition, stress, and most importantly, hypodynamia. Diseases of the liver in these animals are mainly the result of either disorders of feeding or other diseases in which liver damage is secondary. Therefore, timely monitoring of the state of metabolism in the animal body, early diagnosis of hepatodystrophy, and urgent measures in the event of a disease are very important. The aim of the work is to study the spread of liver function disorders in small animals in the modern ecological conditions of the city of Odessa.
The article analyzes the incidence of liver diseases in small animals; the main causes of liver diseases, the tendency to develop liver diseases in species and age, are established; A study of changes in the morphological and biochemical composition of blood in liver diseases was made. At a pathology of a liver at animals the syndrome of functional insufficiency of a liver, a cytolysis and a cholestasis develops.
243 dogs and 95 cats were examined, of which 75 dogs and 27 cats had various pathological processes in the liver. Thus, according to the research conducted, the percentage of the disease in dogs – 30,8%, and in cats -28,4%.
Of the many pathological processes in the liver of dogs and cats, the processes of inflammatory and dystrophic nature prevail, that is, hepatitis of different etiology
(in dogs with 18% and cats 22.9%), hepatopathology (7.2% and 13.5% respectively), lipids (3.9% and 11.0%), passive overcrowding (9.1 % and 10.7%), necrosis (8.1% and 9.9%), cirrhosis is not the highest percentage (2.3%), but this pathology is very dangerous. In most cases, the cirrhosis itself was a direct or indirect cause of death of animals and, according to specialists, mortality from cirrhosis of the liver has a steady tendency to increase. This, above all, is due to the fact that this is an irreversible diffuse process.
Malignant liver tumors (primary and metastatic) in dogs and cats have a high percentage (13.9% and 12.8%). In this regard, it is necessary to investigate the etiological factors that cause the development of malignant tumors.
Major etiological factors: infection and invasion (viruses, bacteria, protozoonoses); tumors (lymphosarcoma, adenoma, adenocarcinoma); inflammatory processes (acute pancreatitis, acute colitis, acute hepatitis); overload of the liver (lipids); damage to the bile duct cholangitis, blockage of the bile ducts) and others. The leading role in etiology belongs to chronic liver disease associated with the virus of infectious hepatitis carnivores, with feeding animals harmful to liver parenchyma, with the introduction into the body of hepatotoxic poisons.
Clinical symptoms of liver disease are manifestations of disturbances in the digestive system (acute vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, sometimes hemorrhage, appetite disturbances, chronic course – anorexia, in addition, in dogs there is a complete or partial absence of feces, cachexia). ; nervous system (acute and chronic course – general weakness, coma, general state disorder, blindness, convulsions, tremor, circular motion); system of urination (chronic course – polyuria, polydipsia, urolithiasis); disturbance of homeostasis (portal hypertension, jaundice, ascites).
All liver function impairments are accompanied by changes in blood and blood biochemical parameters, as the liver is involved in maintaining homeostasis.
Hematologic indices of diseased animals testify to the development of anemia, which is confirmed by a decrease in the content of hemoglobin and erythrocytes per unit volume of blood. About the development of inflammatory processes in the body, shows leukocytosis. The activity of AST, ALT is quite high in hepatocytes, so even a minor damage to them causes an increase in the activity of these enzymes in the blood (in the acute course of hepatitis, the activity of AST rises 5-10 times, with the chronic – in 1,5-3 times). In addition to hyperfermentemia, in the cytolysis syndrome there is an increase in the concentration of conjugated bilirubin in serum. In animals, the syndrome of functional liver failure, cytolysis and cholestasis developed. The cause of cholestasis is dystrophic processes in the liver, since the activity of AST and ALT is quite large.
Еchography (Ultrasound) is an effective method for diagnosing liver diseases. When carrying out echography in all animals, we observed heterogeneity of the liver structure, a significant increase in echogenicity, and in some animals and gall bladder, the presence of nodules, roundish formations, necrosis zones and hemorrhages in the liver tissue that are of a tumor nature. Echography data confirmed hematological and biochemical blood tests.
Key words: dogs, cats, pathology, liver, insufficiency, hepatopathology, hematology, biochemistry, echography.
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