You are here

Monitoring of liver dysfunction in small animals in modern environmental conditions.

The general rule in the liver damage is the development of its insufficiency, which is characterized by a partial or complete violation of its basic functions. Insufficiency of the liver is a condition in which the functional activity of the liver does not ensure the maintenance of homeostasis. Changes in metabolism in the body of animals, reduction of nonspecific resistance of the organism, prolonged intoxication create prerequisites for the development of various diseases. In the conditions of large cities, there are rarely animals, in which the liver was not damaged in one way or another. This is also due to both unfavorable ecology and inadequate, and often excessive nutrition, stress, and most importantly, hypodynamia. Diseases of the liver in these animals are mainly the result of either disorders of feeding or other diseases in which liver damage is secondary. Therefore, timely monitoring of the state of metabolism in the animal body, early diagnosis of hepatodystrophy, and urgent measures in the event of a disease are very important. The aim of the work is to study the spread of liver function disorders in small animals in the modern ecological conditions of the city of Odessa.

The article analyzes the incidence of liver diseases in small animals; the main causes of liver diseases, the tendency to develop liver diseases in species and age, are established; A study of changes in the morphological and biochemical composition of blood in liver diseases was made. At a pathology of a liver at animals the syndrome of functional insufficiency of a liver, a cytolysis and a cholestasis develops.

243 dogs and 95 cats were examined, of which 75 dogs and 27 cats had various pathological processes in the liver. Thus, according to the research conducted, the percentage of the disease in dogs – 30,8%, and in cats -28,4%.

Of the many pathological processes in the liver of dogs and cats, the processes of inflammatory and dystrophic nature prevail, that is, hepatitis of different etiology

(in dogs with 18% and cats 22.9%), hepatopathology (7.2% and 13.5% respectively), lipids (3.9% and 11.0%), passive overcrowding (9.1 % and 10.7%), necrosis (8.1% and 9.9%), cirrhosis is not the highest percentage (2.3%), but this pathology is very dangerous. In most cases, the cirrhosis itself was a direct or indirect cause of death of animals and, according to specialists, mortality from cirrhosis of the liver has a steady tendency to increase. This, above all, is due to the fact that this is an irreversible diffuse process.

Malignant liver tumors (primary and metastatic) in dogs and cats have a high percentage (13.9% and 12.8%). In this regard, it is necessary to investigate the etiological factors that cause the development of malignant tumors.

Major etiological factors: infection and invasion (viruses, bacteria, protozoonoses); tumors (lymphosarcoma, adenoma, adenocarcinoma); inflammatory processes (acute pancreatitis, acute colitis, acute hepatitis); overload of the liver (lipids); damage to the bile duct cholangitis, blockage of the bile ducts) and others. The leading role in etiology belongs to chronic liver disease associated with the virus of infectious hepatitis carnivores, with feeding animals harmful to liver parenchyma, with the introduction into the body of hepatotoxic poisons.

Clinical symptoms of liver disease are manifestations of disturbances in the digestive system (acute vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, sometimes hemorrhage, appetite disturbances, chronic course – anorexia, in addition, in dogs there is a complete or partial absence of feces, cachexia). ; nervous system (acute and chronic course – general weakness, coma, general state disorder, blindness, convulsions, tremor, circular motion); system of urination (chronic course – polyuria, polydipsia, urolithiasis); disturbance of homeostasis (portal hypertension, jaundice, ascites).

All liver function impairments are accompanied by changes in blood and blood biochemical parameters, as the liver is involved in maintaining homeostasis. 

Hematologic indices of diseased animals testify to the development of anemia, which is confirmed by a decrease in the content of hemoglobin and erythrocytes per unit volume of blood. About the development of inflammatory processes in the body, shows leukocytosis. The activity of AST, ALT is quite high in hepatocytes, so even a minor damage to them causes an increase in the activity of these enzymes in the blood (in the acute course of hepatitis, the activity of AST rises 5-10 times, with the chronic – in 1,5-3 times). In addition to hyperfermentemia, in the cytolysis syndrome there is an increase in the concentration of conjugated bilirubin in serum. In animals, the syndrome of functional liver failure, cytolysis and cholestasis developed. The cause of cholestasis is dystrophic processes in the liver, since the activity of AST and ALT is quite large.

Еchography (Ultrasound) is an effective method for diagnosing liver diseases. When carrying out echography in all animals, we observed heterogeneity of the liver structure, a significant increase in echogenicity, and in some animals and gall bladder, the presence of nodules, roundish formations, necrosis zones and hemorrhages in the liver tissue that are of a tumor nature. Echography data confirmed hematological and biochemical blood tests.

Key words: dogs, cats, pathology, liver, insufficiency, hepatopathology, hematology, biochemistry, echography.


1. Vilkovskiy, I.F. (2006). Diagnostika i lecheniye novoobrazovaniy pecheni [Diagnosis and treatment of liver tumors].Ros. vet. zhurn. [Ros. vet.], № 1, 14 p.

2. Shcherbakova G.G., Korobova A.B. (2002). Vnutrenniye bolezni zhivotnykh [Internal diseases of animals], SPb.
Lan, 736 р.

3. Vysotskiy P.H. (2001). Sravnitel'naya kharakteristika morfologicheskikh i funktsional'nykh issledovaniy pri patologiyakh pecheni u sobak [Comparative characteristics of morphological and functional studies in liver pathologies in dogs:].Avtoref. dis. kand. vet. nauk [Author's abstract. dis. Cand. vet. sciences ]. Moscow, 22 р.

4. Galuaz'ye-Bride N. (1999). Dopolnitel'nyye metody klinicheskogo issledovaniya pecheni u sobaki i koshki [Additional methods of clinical investigation of the liver in dogs and cats ]. Veterinar [Veterinarian], №3-4, рр.14-22.

5. Gladskikh L.V.(1994). Dinamika izmeneniy aktivnosti nekotorykh fermentov v krovi sobak pri eksperimental'noy ostroy pechenochnoy nedostatochnosti [Dynamics of changes in the activity of some enzymes in the blood of dogs under experimental acute hepatic insufficiency].Vopr. vet. Biologii [Vopr. vet. biology], рр.107-108.

6. Holovakha B.I., Dykyy O.A. (1997). Hepato-renalʹnyy sshdrom u sluzhbovykh sobak [Hepato-renal joint in the service dogs], Nauk.dosyahn. haluzi vet. мedytsyny [Nauk.dosyagn. galuzi vet. мedicine.]. Kharkiv, рр.17-18.

7. Dykyy O.A., Holovakha V.I., Solovyova L.M. (2006). Informatyvnistʹ okremykh pokaznykiv dlya diahnostyky patolohiyi pechinky i nyrok u sobak [Informativnost okremih otraznikіv for the diagnosis of pathology of the liver and nirok in dogs]. Bila Tserkva. рр. 32-37.

8. Dunaevskyy O.A. (1985) Dyfferentsyalʹnaya dyahnostyka zabolevanyy pecheny [Differential diagnosis of liver diseases ]. St. Petersburg: Medytsyna, 76р.

9. Kazakov D.N., Fedyuk V.Y. (2000). Syndrom funktsyonalʹnoy kyshechnoy neprokhodymosty pry hepatyte sobak [Syndrome of functional intestinal obstruction in hepatitis of dogs], Aktualʹnye problemy byolohyy y veterynarnoy medytsyny melkykh domashnykh zhyvotnykh [Actual problems of biology and veterinary medicine of small domestic animals]. Troitsk, рр. 36-37.

10. Kartashova O. Y. (2000). Funktsyonalʹnaya morfolohyya pecheny [Functional morphology of the liver]. St. Petersburg Tryhon, 118 р.

11. Levchenko V.I. (2007). Deyaki aspekty patohenezu hepatodystrofiyi u sobak [Acts aspect pathogenesis of hepatodystrophy in dogs],Visnyk Bilotserkiv.derzh.ahrar.un-tu, рр. 110– 116.

12. Lysytsyna A.A., Vasylevych F.Y. Otsenka funktsyonalʹnoho sostoyanyya pecheny y pochek u sobak pry demodekoze [Evaluation of the functional state of the liver and kidneys in dogs with demodicosis], A Tezysy VII Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsyy po problemam veterynarnoy medytsyny melkykh domashnykh zhyvotnykh [Theses of the VII International Conference on Veterinary Medicine of Small Pets]. Moscow, рр.127-128.

13. Podymova S.D. (2005). Bolezni pecheni [Diseases of the liver], Moscow, 704 р.

14. Solovyova L.M. (2006). Metodi díagnostiki ta líkuvannya toksichnoí̈ gepatodistrofíí̈ u sobak [Metodi dіagnostiki t lіkuvannya toxic hepatodistrofії in dogs]. №55, рр. 256-259.

15. Usha B.V., Kontsevova A.A. (2011). Korrektsiya ostroy pechenochnoy nedostatochnosti (OPN) u sobak s pomoshch'yu kolloidnoy vzvesi klasterov serebra i zhelchi [Correction of acute hepatic insufficiency (ARF) in dogs with the help of colloidal suspension of clusters of silver and bile ], Tezisy dokladov mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Abstracts of the International Scientific Conference]. Moscow, рр.150-152.

16. Shtayner Y. M. (2011). Khronicheskiye zabolevaniya pecheni u melkikh domashnikh zhivotnykh : tezisy [Chronic liver diseases in small domestic animals: theses], Veterinarnyy Peterburg [Veterinary Petersburg]. рр.12-14.

17. Alderson P.O., Adams D.F., McNeil B.J. (1983). Computed tomography, ultrasound, and scintigraphy of the liver in patients with colon or breast carcinoma: A prospective comparison, Radiology, №149, рр. 225-230.

18. Bernadino M.E., Thomas J.L., Barnes P.A., Lewis E. (1982). Diagnostic approaches to liver and spleen metastases, Radiol Clin North Am, №20, рр. 469-485.

19. Clifford C.A., Pretorius E.S., Weisse C., et al. (2004). Magnetic resonance imaging of focal splenic and hepatic lesions in the dog. J. Vet Intern Med., №18, рр. 330-338.

20. Cornelius L.M. ( 1989) Chronic hepatitis in dogs. Vet. Med. Report., №1 (3), рр. 328-343.

21. Dietrich C.F., Kratzer W., Strobel D., et al. (2006). Assessment of metastatic liver disease in patients with primary extrahepatic tumors by contrast-enhanced sonography versus CT and MRI. World J. Gastroenterol, №12, рр. 1699-1705.

22. Feeney D.A., Johnston G.R., Hardy R.M. (1984). Two-dimensional, gray-scale ultrasonography for assessment of hepatic and splenic neoplasia in the dog and cat. J. Am Vet Med Assoc., № 184, рр.68-81.

23. Finlay I.G., Meek D.R., Gray H.W., et al. (1982). Incidence and detection of occult hepatic metastases in colorectal carcinoma. BMJ., №284, рр. 803-805.

24. Friedman A.C., Dachman A.H. (1994). Radiology of the Liver, Biliary Tract, and Pancreas. St. Louis, Mosby-Year Book., рр. 244-249.

25. Jacobson L.S., Kirberger R.M., Nesbit J.W. (1995). Hepatic ultrasonography and pathological findings in dogs with hepatocutaneous syndrome: new concepts. J. Vet Intern Med., №;9(6), рр. 399-404.

26. Jubb K.V.F., Kennedy P.C., Palmer N. ( 1985) Pathology of Domestic Animals  Orlando, Florida: Academic Pr., рр. 195-200.

27. Kimmel S.E., Christiansen W., Byrne K.P. (2003). Clinicopathological, ultrasonographic, and histopathological findings of superficial necrolytic dermatitis with hepatopathy in a cat. J. Am Anim Hosp Assoc., №39(1), рр. 23-27.

28. Knoph D.R., Torres W.E., Fajman W.J., et al. (1982). Liver lesions: Comparative accuracy of scintigraphy and computed tomography. Am J Roentgenol., №138, рр. 623-627.

29. Leen E., Ceccotti P., Kalogeropoulou C., et al. (2006). Prospective multicenter trial evaluating a novel method of characterizing focal liver lesions using contrast-enhanced sonography. Am J Roentgenol., №186, рр. 1551-1559.

30. Quaia E., D’Onofrio M., Palumbo A., et al. (2006). Comparison of contrast- enhanced ultrasonography verses baseline ultrasound and contrast- enhanced computed tomography in metastatic disease of the liver: Diagnostic performance and confidence. Eur Radiol., №16, рр.1599-1609.

31. Pamilo M., Suramo I., Lahde S. (1983). Comparison of ultrasound and CT images of liver metastasis. Acta Radiol Diagn., № 24, рр. 139-143.

32. Stark D.D., Wittenberg J., Butch R.J., et al. (1987). Hepatic metastases: Randomized controlled comparison of detection with MR imaging and CT.   Radiology, №165, рр. 399-406.

33. Wegener O.H., Mutzel W., Souchon R. (1980). Contrast media for computed tomography of the liver. Acta Radiol Diagn., №21, рр. 239-247.

PDF icon nvvm_1_2018_koreneva_38-44.pdf240.19 KB