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Analysis of spleen pathology spread in small animals in modern conditions of the city.

The problems of pathological processes occurring in the spleen are determined by high frequency, severity of the course, lethality and negative consequences. Until recently, in veterinary medicine, the general patterns of the origin, development, and consequences of pathological processes originating in the spleen have not yet been studied.

The objective difficulties are, first of all, the presence of multi-organ failure, which leads to late diagnosis and treatment, as well as a high percentage of mortality.

The frequency of development of pathological processes in the spleen in small animals, the main causes of the emergence of pathologies of the spleen; features of manifestation and clinical course in it; changes in the clinical and biochemical composition of blood in the pathology of the spleen, are analyzed in the article.

Of the many pathological processes in the spleen of dogs, inflammatory and dystrophic processes predominate, that is, splenicata of various etiologies (in 39.2%), hypersplenism – an increase in the spleen (17.5%), primary tumor lesions (10.2%), violation blood filling (6.7%), heart attacks (5.3%), abscesses (4.9%). There are also metastasis of malignant tumors in 4.4% of cases and fatty degeneration of the organ in 3.7%.

Due to the fact that a lot of pathological processes were detected in the spleen, we investigated the main etiological factors contributing to the development of these processes. All the etiological factors we have identified can be divided into two groups, depending on the direct effect of the factor or the indirect one.

The first group includes etiological factors that themselves contribute to the development of pathological processes in the spleen. Such factors are: traumatic injuries, infectious and parasitic diseases, complications after surgical interventions, tumors, hereditary disorders, disorders in the vascular system.

The second group includes factors that themselves do not affect the development of pathological processes in the spleen, but have a negative effect on the organs that are associated with the spleen – the liver, kidneys, stomach, intestines. Therefore, this group includes many factors: a violation of feeding and animal motility, traumatic injuries, postoperative complications, the action of drugs and toxic substances, infectious and parasitic factors, tumors, generalized hematopoiesis, heart failure.

Among the factors of the first group is dominated by traumatic lesions of the spleen (41%), which arise in emergencies, injuries in the fall of animals, beating animals. In these cases there are ruptures, swirling, inflammation of the spleen. Such pathologies occur in animals of different ages, but in most cases young, more mobile dogs.

The second place is infectious and invasive factors (25%), due to the fact that the spleen belongs to secondary organs of immunity. In most cases there is an increase in the spleen, and in more severe cases of inflammation, abscesses, heart attacks.

Third place is tumor lesion (22%). In the spleen there are both benign and malignant tumors. In most cases, tumors occur in older dogs (over 8 years of age). The spleen is more likely to diagnose malignant tumors of the connective tissue – sarcomas, hemangiomas, which give significant metastases to other organs

The fourth place is the complications that arise after surgery (8%). After unsuccessful operations, there are development of peritonitis, which contribute to inflammation of the spleen.

Fifth place is inherited factors associated with the spleen (2%). This is a violation of the structure of the spleen, the appearance of additional parts of the spleen, an irregular anatomical structure. Such pathologies occur and are diagnosed in young animals (up to 6 months).


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